2015, 28(1): 57-71.
2018, 31(2): 87-96.
Objective MicroRNAs (miRs) are attractive molecules to be considered as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to explore their potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD. Methods The expression levels of exosomal miR-135a, -193b, and-384 in the serum from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients were measured with a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) method. Results Both serum exosome miR-135a and miR-384 were up-regulated while miR-193b was down-regulated in serum of AD patients compared with that of normal controls. Exosome miR-384 was the best among the three miRs to discriminate AD, VaD, and PDD. Using the cut-off value could better interpret these laboratory test results than reference intervals in the AD diagnosis. ROC curve showed that the combination of miR-135a, -193b, and-384 was proved to be better than a particular one for early AD diagnosis. Conclusion Our results indicated that the exosomal miRs in the serum were not only potential biomarker of AD early diagnosis, but might also provide novel insights into the screen and prevention of the disease.
2019, 32(5): 324-333.
Objective To investigate the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV1). Methods We used cell culture, long-overlapping RT-PCR, and spot hybridization assays to verify and accurately locate the sites of action of ozone that cause PV1 inactivation. We also employed recombinant viral genome RNA infection models to confirm our observations. Results Our results indicated that ozone inactivated PV1 primarily by disrupting the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) of the PV1 genome. Further study revealed that ozone specifically damaged the 80-124 nucleotide (nt) region in the 5'-NCR. Recombinant viral genome RNA infection models confirmed that PV1 lacking this region was non-infectious. Conclusion In this study, we not only elucidated the mechanisms by which ozone induces PV1 inactivation but also determined that the 80-124 nt region in the 5'-NCR is targeted by ozone to achieve this inactivation.
2019, 32(9): 659-672.
Objective Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) feature different inflammatory and cellular profiles in the airways, indicating that the cellular metabolic pathways regulating these disorders are distinct. Methods We aimed to compare the serum metabolomic profiles among mild persistent asthmatic patients, individuals with stable COPD, and healthy subjects and to explore the potential metabolic biomarkers and pathways. The serum metabolomic profiles of 17 subjects with mild persistent asthma, 17 subjects with stable COPD, and 15 healthy subjects were determined by an untargeted metabolomic analysis utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A series of multivariate statistical analyses was subsequently used. Results Multivariate analysis indicated a distinct separation between the asthmatic patients and healthy controls in electrospray positive and negative ions modes, respectively. A total of 19 differential metabolites were identified. Similarly, a distinct separation between asthma and COPD subjects was detected in the two ions modes. A total of 16 differential metabolites were identified. Among the identified metabolites, the serum levels of hypoxanthine were markedly higher in asthmatic subjects compared with those in COPD or healthy subjects. Conclusions Patients with asthma present a unique serum metabolome, which can distinguish them from individuals with COPD and healthy subjects. Purine metabolism alteration may be distinct and involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
2018, 31(9): 637-644.
Objective The primary aim of the study was to compare two nutritional status evaluation tools:the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002). Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the second aim was to provide constructive advice regarding the quality of life of patients with malignancy. Methods This study enrolled 312 oncology patients and assessed their nutritional status and quality of life using the PG-SGA, NRS-2002, and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results The data indicate that 6% of the cancer patients were well nourished. The SGA-A had a higher sensitivity (93.73%) but a poorer specificity (2.30%) than the NRS-2002 (69.30% and 25.00%, respectively) after comparison with albumin. There was a low negative correlation and a high similarity between the PG-SGA and NRS-2002 for evaluating nutritional status, and there was a significant difference in the median PG-SGA scores for each of the SGA classifications (P < 0.001). The SGA-C group showed the highest PG-SGA scores and lowest body mass index. The majority of the target population received 2 points for each item in our 11-item questionnaire from the EORTC QLQ-C30. Conclusion The data indicate that the PG-SGA is more useful and suitable for evaluating nutritional status than the NRS-2002. Additionally, early nutrition monitoring can prevent malnutrition and improve the quality of life of cancer patients.
2014, 27(8): 606-613.
Objective The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies.
Methods A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared.
Results Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg·d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P<0.05).
Conclusion The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg·d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg·d) and 132.05 mg N/kg·d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg·d), respectively.
2020, 33(1): 1-10.
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
Objective To investigate the effects of short-term forest bathing on human health.Methods Twenty healthy male university students participated as subjects and were randomly divided into two groups of 10.One group was sent on a two-night trip to a broad-leaved evergreen forest,and the other was sent to a city area.Serum cytokine levels reflecting inflammatory and stress response,indicators reflecting oxidative stress,the distribution of leukocyte subsets,and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations were measured before and after the experiment to evaluate the positive health effects of forest environments.A profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation was used to assess changes in mood states.Results No significant differences in the baseline values of the indicators were observed between the two groups before the experiment.Subjects exposed to the forest environment showed reduced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory level,as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde,interleukin-6,and tumor necrosis factor α levels compared with the urban group.Serum cortisol levels were also lower than in the urban group.Notably,the concentration of plasma ET-1 was much lower in subjects exposed to the forest environment.The POMS evaluation showed that after exposure to the forest environment,subjects had lower scores in the negative subscales,and the score for vigor was increased.Conclusion Forest bathing is beneficial to human health,perhaps through preventive effects related to several pathological factors.
2019, 32(10): 739-754.
Objective This study aimed to explore the potential effects of terahertz (THz) waves on primary cultured neurons from 4 rat brain regions (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem) and 3 kinds of neuron-like cells (MN9D, PC12, and HT22 cells) under nonthermal conditions. Methods THz waves with an output power of 50 (0.16 THz) and 10 (0.17 THz) mW with exposure times of 6 and 60 min were used in this study. Analysis of temperature change, neurite growth, cell membrane roughness, micromorphology, neurotransmitters and synaptic-related proteins (SYN and PSD95) was used to evaluate the potential effects. Results Temperature increase caused by the THz wave was negligible. THz waves induced significant neurotransmitter changes in primary hippocampal, cerebellar, and brainstem neurons and in MN9D and PC12 cells. THz wave downregulated SYN expression in primary hippocampal neurons and downregulated PSD95 expression in primary cortical neurons. Conclusion Different types of cells responded differently after THz wave exposure, and primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and MN9D cells were relatively sensitive to the THz waves. The biological effects were positively correlated with the exposure time of the THz waves.
2017, 30(5): 384-389.
China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients.
2018, 31(11): 855-858.
2020, 33(6): 385-395.
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food. Methods Ninety Aeromonas isolates were obtained from Ma’anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated gyrB-cpn60 sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Results The 90 Aeromonas isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The Aeromonas isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes act, aerA, alt, and ast found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new mcr-3 variant. Conclusions Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in Aeromonas isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.
2020, 33(3): 151-157.
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate macular perfusion changes and ganglion cell complex (GCC) loss in patients with unexplained visual loss following vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) tamponade, and to evaluate the correlation between retinal blood flow and GCC loss using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods This retrospective study included seven eyes (seven patients) with unexpected visual loss after vitrectomy and SO tamponade. OCTA was used to evaluate the alterations in retinal vessel density (VD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP). OCT was used to measure the thickness of GCC and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Medical records of patients were reviewed. Results Quantitative analysis of OCTA images revealed a significant reduction in SCP VD in the affected eyes compared with the controls (all sections P < 0.05). No difference was found in GCC thickness, but FLV (focal loss volume) and GLV (global loss volume) were significantly higher in the affected eyes (both P < 0.001). SCP VD was inversely correlated with FLV and GLV. Conclusions Silicone oil-related severe visual loss was associated with superficial retinal microvasculature damage and ganglion cell apoptosis.
2018, 31(3): 208-214.
Objective To detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) rapidly and distinguish its genotypes, a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection system was developed. Methods By aligning the full-length sequences of JEV (G1-G5), six sets of highly specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved NS1, NS2, and M genes of JEV, which included one set for non-specific JEV detection and five sets for the detection of specific JEV genotypes. Twenty batches of mosquito samples were used to evaluate our quantitative PCR assay. Results With the specific assay, no other flavivirus were detected. The lower limits of detection of the system were 1 pfu/mL for JEV titers and 100 RNA copies/μL. The coefficients of variation of this real-time RT-PCR were all < 2.8%. The amplification efficiency of this method was between 90% and 103%. Conclusion A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection system was successfully established to detect and differentiate all five JEV genotypes.
2016, 29(3): 212-218.
The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.
2020, 33(8): 639-645.
An online survey conducted March 18–19, 2020 on the official China CDC WeChat account platform was used to evaluate the effect of public education about masks usage during the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Chinese nationals older than 18 were eligible for the survey. The survey collected 5,761 questionnaires from the 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions of mainland China. 99.7% and 97.2% of the respondents answered correctly that respiratory droplets and direct contact were the main transmission routes. 73.3% of the respondents considered COVID-19 to be ‘serious’ or ‘very serious’. When going to the hospital, 96.9% (2,885/2,976 had gone to a hospital) used a mask during the COVID-19 epidemic, while 41.1% (2,367/5,761) did not use a mask before the epidemic. Among the respondents that used public transportation and went shopping, 99.6% and 99.4%, respectively, wore masks. Among respondents who returned to work, 75.5% wore a mask at the workplace, while 86.3% of those who have not returned to work will choose to use masks when they return to the workplace. The Chinese public is highly likely to use a mask during COVID-19 epidemic, and the mask usage changed greatly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, public education has played an important role during the COVID-19 epidemic .
2020, 33(6): 444-447.
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a veterinary pathogen that infects domestic animals as well as wild animals such as wild boar and feral swine, was recently reported to infect human and led to endophthalmitis and encephalitis. A retrospective seroepidemiologic survey was conducted using 1,335 serum samples collected from patients with encephalitis and ELISA positive rates were 12.16%, 14.25%, and 6.52% in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. The virus neutralizing antibody titers of positive samples correlated well with ELISA results. The pseudorabies virus antibody positive rate of patients with encephalitis were higher than that of healthy people in 2017. The above results suggest that some undefined human encephalitis cases may be caused by PRV infection.
2020, 33(1): 19-29.
Objective The present study aimed to investigate the association of red meat usual intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and explore the contribution of red meat usual intake to serum ferritin. Methods Based on the data from the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 2,797 healthy adults aged 18–75 years without hypertension, diabetes, and MetS were selected in 2009 as subjects and follow-up studies were carried out till 2015. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to estimate the usual intake of foods. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between red meat usual intake and the risk of MetS. Quantile regression analysis was used to study the relationship between red meat consumption and serum ferritin levels. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, red meat, and fresh red meat were positively associated with the risk of MetS (RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05–1.90 and RR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02–1.85, respectively). These relationships showed increasing trend (P < 0.05). The level of serum ferritin increased significantly with the number of MetS components (P < 0.05). The quantile regression analysis showed that red meat and fresh red meat usual intake had a significant positive association with serum ferritin levels across the entire conditional serum ferritin distribution (P < 0.05). Processed red meat did not exhibit a similar association. Conclusion Higher red meat usual intake was associated with an increased risk of MetS and elevated serum ferritin levels.
2019, 32(12): 893-904.
Objective Accumulation of estrogenic compounds and other carcinogens in normal breast tissues contributes to unpredictable breast cancer incidence during adolescence and throughout life. To assess the role of parabens in this phenomenon, the paraben content of adjacent normal-malignant breast tissues is measured in women with breast cancer living in Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods Adjacent normal-malignant breast tissue samples were obtained from 53 subjects. The parabens including methyl-paraben (MePB), ethyl-paraben (EtPB), propyl-paraben (PrPB), and butyl-paraben (BuPB) were extracted from the sample supernatant and then subjected to gas chromatography analysis. Results Some risk factors for breast cancer were stimulated by parabens in adjacent malignant-normal breast tissues among young and middle-aged women with breast cancer. We observed a significant association for dose-response pattern of MePB [OR = 98.34 (11.43–185.2), P = 0.027] for both ER+ and PR+ women and MePB [OR = 164.3 (CI: 112.3–216.3), P < 0.001] for HER2+ women than women with negative receptors. The risk of 95-fold increase in MePB dose and 164-fold increase in ∑PBs dose were significant for women with hereditary breast cancer in first-degree relatives. Conclusions These results may promote future epidemiology studies and strategies to improve women’s lifestyle and consume paraben-free products.