[1] Tao WW, Jiang H, Tao XM, et al. Effects of acupuncture, Tuina, Tai Chi, Qigong, and traditional Chinese medicine five-element music therapy on symptom management and quality of life for cancer patients: a meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage, 2016; 51, 728−47. doi:  10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.11.027
[2] Hanne M. Diagnosis and metaphor. Perspect Biol Med, 2015; 58, 35−52. doi:  10.1353/pbm.2015.0010
[3] Yang T, Wang SR, Wang RR, et al. Effectiveness of five-element music therapy in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2021; 44, 101416. doi:  10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101416
[4] Qian HN. The earliest panorama of Chinese medicine constitution categorization-unscrambling Inner Canon of Huangdi about the theory of yin and yang 25 peoples. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm, 2008; 23, 853−5. (In Chinese
[5] Zhang QP, He Q, Liu T. Preliminary exploring the relationship between post-stroke depression and five pedestrian constitution theory. J Sichuan Tradit Chin Med, 2015; 33, 23−5. (In Chinese
[6] Cai DL. Protest of the relationship between Five physical character istics of chronic hepatitis B patients and TCM syndrome type of. Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. 2012. (In Chinese
[7] Chen YH, Li XG. Study on the tendency of people with Fire-element in Yin-Yang and twenty-five people to suffer from disease. J Guiyang Coll Tradit Chin Med, 2013; 35, 3−6. (In Chinese
[8] Li X, Qi XH, Ding X. Analysis of the physiological characteristics and the main points of the disease of the golden form people in the five forms people. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm, 2021; 36, 2095−7. (In Chinese
[9] Liu J. The interpretation of “Yin-Yang 25 People” in “Ling Shu”. Henan University of Chinese Medicine. 2007. (In Chinese
[10] Sun RX, MA YC, Wang DC, et al. Analysis on the personality structure of ‘five elements people’. CJTCMP, 2023; 38, 2807−10. (In Chinese
[11] Chen WH. An attempt to explore the theory of “Twenty-five People of Yin and Yang”. Fujian J Tradit Chin Med, 1986; 17, 44−6. (In Chinese
[12] Li XQ, Ma SX, Cui JM, et al. Reflections on acupuncture in Huangdi Neijing twenty-five people of Yin and Yang. Lishizhen Med Materia Med Res, 2010; 21, 965−6. (In Chinese
[13] Cui D. Study on the scheme and method of constitution recognition of Yin-Yang and five elements people in traditional Chinese medicine. Chengdu University of TCM. 2018. (In Chinese
[14] Pan MC, Teng J, Ding X, et al. The main points of physiology and pathology of people with wood- element analyzed based on “systematic syndrome differentiation and pulse theory”. Lishizhen Med Materia Med Res, 2021; 32, 2722−4. (In Chinese
[15] Zhang WJ, Wang JY, Yin XY, et al. Research status of five elements people of traditional Chinese medicine and research progress of related constitution identification methods. China Med Herald, 2020; 17, 38−41. (In Chinese
[16] Bouma G, Carland S. The research process. 6th ed. Oxford University Press. 2016.
[17] Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K. Research methods in education. 5th ed. Routledge. 2000.
[18] Gao LL. Policy challenges for university English teachers in China: beyond the obvious. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. 2010.
[19] McCrae RR, John OP. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. J Pers, 1992; 60, 175−215. doi:  10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x
[20] Li JJ, Chen RB, Gai GZ. Analysis of the meaning of “shape” in traditional Chinese medicine. J Basic Chin Med, 2019; 25, 1333−4,1345. (In Chinese
[21] Creswell JW. Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches. 3rd ed. SAGE Publications, Inc. 2013.
[22] Guest G, Namey E, Chen M. A simple method to assess and report thematic saturation in qualitative research. PLoS One, 2020; 15, e0232076. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0232076
[23] Hennink M, Kaiser BN. Sample sizes for saturation in qualitative research: a systematic review of empirical tests. Soc Sci Med, 2022; 292, 114523. doi:  10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114523
[24] Jimenez ME, Hudson SV, Lima D, et al. Engaging a community leader to enhance preparation for in-depth interviews with community members. Qual Health Res, 2019; 29, 270−8. doi:  10.1177/1049732318792848
[25] Zamawe FC. The implication of using NVivo software in qualitative data analysis: evidence-based reflections. Mal Med J, 2015; 27, 13−5. doi:  10.4314/mmj.v27i1.4
[26] Kiger ME, Varpio L. Thematic analysis of qualitative data: AMEE Guide No. 131. Med Teach, 2020; 42, 846−54. doi:  10.1080/0142159X.2020.1755030
[27] Kallio H, Pietilä AM, Johnson M, et al. Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. J Adv Nurs, 2016; 72, 2954−65. doi:  10.1111/jan.13031
[28] Nicola M, Correia H, Ditchburn G, et al. Invalidation of chronic pain: a thematic analysis of pain narratives. Disabil Rehabil, 2021; 43, 861−9. doi:  10.1080/09638288.2019.1636888
[29] Zhang WJ. Therapy of five features of patients categorized by Chinese medicine in treating hypertension. China J Tradit Chin Med Pharm, 2018; 33, 983−5. (In Chinese
[30] Stolier RM, Hehman E, Keller MD, et al. The conceptual structure of face impressions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2018; 115, 9210−5. doi:  10.1073/pnas.1807222115
[31] Windhager S, Schaefer K, Fink B. Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance, and masculinity. Am J Hum Biol, 2011; 23, 805−14. doi:  10.1002/ajhb.21219
[32] Bar M, Neta M, Linz H. Very first impressions. Emotion, 2006; 6, 269−78. doi:  10.1037/1528-3542.6.2.269
[33] Willis J, Todorov A. First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face. Psychol Sci, 2006; 17, 592−8. doi:  10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01750.x
[34] Carré JM, McCormick CM. In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players. Proc Roy Soc B:Biol Sci, 2008; 275, 2651−6.
[35] Haselhuhn MP, Ormiston ME, Wong EM. Men’s facial width-to-height ratio predicts aggression: a meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2015; 10, e0122637. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0122637
[36] Keshmiri S, Shiomi M, Shatani K, et al. Facial pre-touch space differentiates the level of openness among individuals. Sci Rep, 2019; 9, 11924. doi:  10.1038/s41598-019-48481-x
[37] Teo WL. On thoughts, emotions, facial expressions, and aging. Int J Dermatol, 2021; 60, e200−2.
[38] Tcherkassof A, Dupré D. The emotion-facial expression link: evidence from human and automatic expression recognition. Psychol Res, 2021; 85, 2954−69. doi:  10.1007/s00426-020-01448-4
[39] Hu SL, Xiong JY, Fu PC, et al. Signatures of personality on dense 3D facial images. Sci Rep, 2017; 7, 73. doi:  10.1038/s41598-017-00071-5
[40] Xia X, Chen XW, Wu G, et al. Three-dimensional facial-image analysis to predict heterogeneity of the human ageing rate and the impact of lifestyle. Nat Metab, 2020; 2, 946−57. doi:  10.1038/s42255-020-00270-x
[41] Chen WY, Qian W, Wu G, et al. Three-dimensional human facial morphologies as robust aging markers. Cell Res, 2015; 25, 574−87. doi:  10.1038/cr.2015.36
[42] Hoss RA, Ramsey JL, Griffin AM, et al. The role of facial attractiveness and facial masculinity/femininity in sex classification of faces. Perception, 2005; 34, 1459−74. doi:  10.1068/p5154
[43] Foo YZ, Simmons LW, Rhodes G. Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans. Sci Rep, 2017; 7, 39731. doi:  10.1038/srep39731
[44] Stephan Y, Sutin AR, Luchetti M, et al. Personality and HbA1c: findings from six samples. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2020; 120, 104782. doi:  10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104782
[45] Cai HH, Zhu JJ, Yu YQ. Robust prediction of individual personality from brain functional connectome. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 2020; 15, 359−69. doi:  10.1093/scan/nsaa044
[46] Dreber A, Apicella CL, Eisenberg DTA, et al. The 7R polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene ( DRD4) is associated with financial risk taking in men. Evol Hum Behav, 2009; 30, 85−92. doi:  10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.11.001
[47] Livesley WJ, Jang KL, Vernon PA. Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits delineating personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1998; 55, 941−8. doi:  10.1001/archpsyc.55.10.941
[48] Penton-Voak IS, Chen JY. High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans. Evol Hum Behav, 2004; 25, 229−41. doi:  10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.04.003
[49] Whitehouse AJO, Gilani SZ, Shafait F, et al. Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood. Proc Roy Soc B:Biol Sci, 2015; 282, 20151351.
[50] Kachur A, Osin E, Davydov D, et al. Assessing the Big Five personality traits using real-life static facial images. Sci Rep, 2020; 10, 8487. doi:  10.1038/s41598-020-65358-6
[51] Lewis GJ, Bates TC, Posthuma D, et al. Core dimensions of personality broadly account for the link from perceived social support to symptoms of depression and anxiety. J Pers, 2014; 82, 329−39. doi:  10.1111/jopy.12064
[52] Waller D, Johnston C, Molyneaux L, et al. Glycemic control and blood glucose monitoring over time in a sample of young Australians with type 1 diabetes: the role of personality. Diabetes Care, 2013; 36, 2968−73. doi:  10.2337/dc12-1743