[1] Targher G, Byrne CD. Circulating markers of liver function and cardiovascular disease risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2015; 35, 2290-6. doi:  10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305235
[2] Sharma U, Pal D, Prasad R. Alkaline phosphatase:An overview. Indian J Clin Biochem, 2014; 29, 269-78. doi:  10.1007/s12291-013-0408-y
[3] Regidor DL, Kovesdy CP, Mehrotra R, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase predicts mortality among maintenance hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2008; 19, 2193-203. doi:  10.1681/ASN.2008010014
[4] Covic A, Kothawala P, Bernal M, et al. Systematic review of the evidence underlying the association between mineral metabolism disturbances and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2009; 24, 1506-23. doi:  10.1093/ndt/gfn613
[5] Kunutsor SK, Apekey TA, Khan H. Liver enzymes and risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population:A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Atherosclerosis, 2014; 236, 7-17. doi:  10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.06.006
[6] Kim J, Song TJ, Song D, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate in cerebral atherosclerosis and functional outcomes after cerebral infarction. Stroke, 2013; 44, 3547-9. doi:  10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002959
[7] Park JB, Kang DY, Yang HM, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase is a predictor of mortality, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis after implantation of coronary drug-eluting stent. Eur Heart J, 2013; 34, 920-31. doi:  10.1093/eurheartj/ehs419
[8] Bots ML, Grobbee DE. Intima media thickness as a surrogate marker for generalised atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 2002; 16, 341-51. doi:  10.1023/A:1021738111273
[9] de Groot E, Hovingh GK, Wiegman A, et al. Measurement of arterial wall thickness as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. Circulation, 2004; 109, Ⅲ33-8. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=WK_LWW201705250313811
[10] Bots ML, Hoes AW, Koudstaal PJ, et al. Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction:The rotterdam study. Circulation, 1997; 96, 1432-7. doi:  10.1161/01.CIR.96.5.1432
[11] O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular health study collaborative research group. N Engl J Med, 1999; 340, 14-22. doi:  10.1056/NEJM199901073400103
[12] Inaba Y, Chen JA, Bergmann SR. Carotid plaque, compared with carotid intima-media thickness, more accurately predicts coronary artery disease events:A meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis, 2012; 220, 128-33. doi:  10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.06.044
[13] Wald DS, Bestwick JP, Morton G, et al. Combining carotid intima-media thickness with carotid plaque on screening for coronary heart disease. J Med Screen, 2009; 16, 155-9. doi:  10.1258/jms.2009.009039
[14] Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. 2007 guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension:The task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the european society of hypertension (esh) and of the european society of cardiology (esc). Eur Heart J, 2007; 28, 1462-536.
[15] Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice:Executive summary. Fourth joint task force of the european society of cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 2007; 14, E1-40. doi:  10.1097/01.hjr.0000277984.31558.c4
[16] Man E, Cheung PT, Cheung YF. Associations between arterial structure and function and serum levels of liver enzymes in obese adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health, 2017; 53, 691-7. doi:  10.1111/jpc.2017.53.issue-7
[17] Schutte R, Huisman HW, Malan L, et al. Alkaline phosphatase and arterial structure and function in hypertensive african men:The sabpa study. Int J Cardiol, 2013; 167, 1995-2001. doi:  10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.05.035
[18] Gheissari A, Sirous M, Hajzargarbashi T, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness in children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. Indian J Nephrol, 2010; 20, 29-33. doi:  10.4103/0971-4065.62095
[19] Yang Y, Han X, Chen Y, et al. Association between modifiable lifestyle and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a chinese population:Based on the cardiovascular health score. Clin cardiol, 2017; 40, 1061-7. doi:  10.1002/clc.2017.40.issue-11
[20] Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med, 2009; 150, 604-12. doi:  10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
[21] Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, et al. Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness and plaque consensus (2004-2006-2011). An update on behalf of the advisory board of the 3rd, 4th and 5th watching the risk symposia, at the 13th, 15th and 20th european stroke conferences, mannheim, germany, 2004, brussels, belgium, 2006, and hamburg, germany, 2011. Cerebrovasc Dis, 2012; 34, 290-6.
[22] Grant EG, Benson CB, Moneta GL, et al. Carotid artery stenosis:Grayscale and doppler ultrasound diagnosis——society of radiologists in ultrasound consensus conference. Ultrasound Q, 2003; 19, 190-8. doi:  10.1097/00013644-200312000-00005
[23] Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (ncep) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel ⅲ). JAMA, 2001; 285, 2486-97. doi:  10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
[24] Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome——a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabet Med, 2006; 23, 469-80. doi:  10.1111/dme.2006.23.issue-5
[25] Li JW, Xu C, Fan Y, et al. Can serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and phosphate predict cardiovascular diseases and total mortality in individuals with preserved renal function? A systemic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 2014; 9, e102276. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0102276
[26] Haarhaus M, Brandenburg V, Kalantar-Zadeh K, et al. Alkaline phosphatase:A novel treatment target for cardiovascular disease in ckd. Nature reviews. Nephrology, 2017; 13, 429-42.
[27] Filipowicz R, Greene T, Wei G, et al. Associations of serum skeletal alkaline phosphatase with elevated c-reactive protein and mortality. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2013; 8, 26-32. doi:  10.2215/CJN.12031111
[28] Kunutsor SK, Bakker SJ, Kootstra-Ros JE, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase and risk of incident cardiovascular disease:Interrelationship with high sensitivity c-reactive protein. PloS One, 2015; 10, e0132822. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0132822
[29] Lencel P, Delplace S, Hardouin P, et al. Tnf-alpha stimulates alkaline phosphatase and mineralization through ppargamma inhibition in human osteoblasts. Bone, 2011; 48, 242-9. doi:  10.1016/j.bone.2010.09.001
[30] Aghagolzadeh P, Bachtler M, Bijarnia R, et al. Calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells is induced by secondary calciprotein particles and enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Atherosclerosis, 2016; 251, 404-14. doi:  10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.05.044
[31] Shioi A, Katagi M, Okuno Y, et al. Induction of bone-type alkaline phosphatase in human vascular smooth muscle cells:Roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oncostatin m derived from macrophages. Circ Res, 2002; 91, 9-16. doi:  10.1161/01.RES.0000026421.61398.F2
[32] Perticone F, Perticone M, Maio R, et al. Serum alkaline phosphatase negatively affects endothelium-dependent vasodilation in naive hypertensive patients. Hypertension, 2015; 66, 874-80. doi:  10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06117
[33] Savinov AY, Salehi M, Yadav MC, et al. Transgenic overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (tnap) in vascular endothelium results in generalized arterial calcification. J Am Heart Assoc, 2015; 4, pii:e002499.
[34] Motamed N, Rabiee B, Poustchi H, et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol, 2017; 41, 31-8. doi:  10.1016/j.clinre.2016.07.005
[35] Wu S, Wu F, Ding Y, et al. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with major adverse cardiovascular events:A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep, 2016; 6, 33386. doi:  10.1038/srep33386
[36] Al Mheid I, Patel RS, Tangpricha V, et al. Vitamin d and cardiovascular disease:Is the evidence solid? Eur Heart J, 2013; 34, 3691-8. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=10.1177/000992287000900705
[37] Kassi E, Adamopoulos C, Basdra EK, et al. Role of vitamin d in atherosclerosis. Circulation, 2013; 128, 2517-31. doi:  10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002654
[38] Wong MS, Delansorne R, Man RY, et al. Vitamin d derivatives acutely reduce endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2008; 295, H289-96. doi:  10.1152/ajpheart.00116.2008
[39] Andrukhova O, Slavic S, Zeitz U, et al. Vitamin d is a regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arterial stiffness in mice. Mol Endocrinol, 2014; 28, 53-64. doi:  10.1210/me.2013-1252
[40] Li YC, Kong J, Wei M, et al. 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin d(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest, 2002; 110, 229-38. doi:  10.1172/JCI0215219
[41] Sung CC, Liao MT, Lu KC, et al. Role of vitamin d in insulin resistance. J Biomed Biotechnol, 2012; 2012, 634195. http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/OAPaper/oai_pubmedcentral.nih.gov_3440067
[42] Al Mheid I, Quyyumi AA. Vitamin d and cardiovascular disease:Controversy unresolved. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2017; 70, 89-100. doi:  10.1016/j.jacc.2017.05.031
[43] Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, et al. Calcium and vitamin d supplements and health outcomes:A reanalysis of the women's health initiative (whi) limited-access data set. Am J Clin Nutr, 2011; 94, 1144-9. doi:  10.3945/ajcn.111.015032