[1] Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin, 2021; 71, 209−49. doi:  10.3322/caac.21660
[2] Filipowicz W, Bhattacharyya SN, Sonenberg N. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs: are the answers in sight?. Nat Rev Genet, 2008; 9, 102−14. doi:  10.1038/nrg2290
[3] Zhong K, Chen K, Han L, et al. MicroRNA-30b/c inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation by targeting Rab18. BMC Cancer, 2014; 14, 703. doi:  10.1186/1471-2407-14-703
[4] Duursma AM, Kedde M, Schrier M, et al. miR-148 targets human DNMT3b protein coding region. RNA, 2008; 14, 872−7. doi:  10.1261/rna.972008
[5] Takagi S, Nakajima M, Kida K, et al. MicroRNAs regulate human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, modulating the expression of metabolic enzymes and cell cycle. J Biol Chem, 2010; 285, 4415−22. doi:  10.1074/jbc.M109.085431
[6] Zhang BH, Pan XP, Cobb GP, et al. microRNAs as oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Dev Biol, 2007; 302, 1−12. doi:  10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.08.028
[7] Yan R, Li K, Yuan DW, et al. Downregulation of microRNA-4295 enhances cisplatin-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis through the EGFR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by targeting LRIG1. Int J Oncol, 2018; 53, 2566−78.
[8] Sun W, Wang XJ, Li JL, et al. MicroRNA-181a promotes angiogenesis in colorectal cancer by targeting SRCIN1 to promote the SRC/VEGF signaling pathway. Cell Death Dis, 2018; 9, 438. doi:  10.1038/s41419-018-0490-4
[9] Liu YF, Nie HL, Zhang YB, et al. MiR-224-5p targeting OCLN promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Urol Int, 2022; 106, 1185−94. doi:  10.1159/000515981
[10] Peng XB, Guo CT, Wu YJ, et al. miR-224-5p regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma by targeting PTEN. Mol Med Rep, 2021; 23, 346. doi:  10.3892/mmr.2021.11985
[11] Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Lendeckel W, et al. Identification of novel genes coding for small expressed RNAs. Science, 2001; 294, 853−8. doi:  10.1126/science.1064921
[12] Zheng Q, Yu JJ, Li CG, et al. miR-224 targets BTRC and promotes cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer. 3 Biotech, 2020; 10, 485.
[13] Pigati L, Yaddanapudi SCS, Iyengar R, et al. Selective release of microRNA species from normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells. PLoS One, 2010; 5, e13515. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0013515
[14] Liu YF, Gu Y, Cao XT. The exosomes in tumor immunity. OncoImmunology, 2015; 4, e1027472. doi:  10.1080/2162402X.2015.1027472
[15] Melo SA, Sugimoto H, O'Connell JT, et al. Cancer exosomes perform cell-independent microRNA biogenesis and promote tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell, 2014; 26, 707−21. doi:  10.1016/j.ccell.2014.09.005
[16] Sun XC, Lin FY, Sun WJ, et al. Exosome-transmitted miRNA-335-5p promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis by facilitating EMT via targeting RASA1. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 2021; 24, 164−74. doi:  10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.022
[17] He LQ, Zhu W, Chen Q, et al. Ovarian cancer cell-secreted exosomal miR-205 promotes metastasis by inducing angiogenesis. Theranostics, 2019; 9, 8206−20. doi:  10.7150/thno.37455
[18] Liu MX, Liao J, Xie M, et al. miR-93-5p transferred by exosomes promotes the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells via intercellular communication by targeting PTEN. Biomed Environ Sci, 2018; 31, 171−85.
[19] Takayama T, Miyanishi K, Hayashi T, et al. Colorectal cancer: genetics of development and metastasis. J Gastroenterol, 2006; 41, 185−92. doi:  10.1007/s00535-006-1801-6
[20] Wang SY, Wang L, Bayaxi N, et al. A microRNA panel to discriminate carcinomas from high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms in colonoscopy biopsy tissue. Gut, 2013; 62, 280−9. doi:  10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301554
[21] Yuyama K, Sun H, Mitsutake S, et al. Sphingolipid-modulated exosome secretion promotes clearance of amyloid-β by microglia. J Biol Chem, 2012; 287, 10977−89. doi:  10.1074/jbc.M111.324616
[22] Wang SY, Wang L, Zhu TF, et al. Improvement of tissue preparation for laser capture microdissection: application for cell type-specific miRNA expression profiling in colorectal tumors. BMC Genomics, 2010; 11, 163. doi:  10.1186/1471-2164-11-163
[23] Dokhanchi M, Pakravan K, Zareian S, et al. Colorectal cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles transfer miR-221-3p to promote endothelial cell angiogenesis via targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Life Sci, 2021; 285, 119937. doi:  10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119937
[24] Wang SY, Xiang JB, Li ZY, et al. A plasma microRNA panel for early detection of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer, 2015; 136, 152−61. doi:  10.1002/ijc.28136
[25] Hager S, Fittler FJ, Wagner E, et al. Nucleic acid-based approaches for tumor therapy. Cells, 2020; 9, 2061. doi:  10.3390/cells9092061
[26] Blanco E, Shen HF, Ferrari M. Principles of nanoparticle design for overcoming biological barriers to drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol, 2015; 33, 941−51. doi:  10.1038/nbt.3330
[27] Barile L, Vassalli G. Exosomes: therapy delivery tools and biomarkers of diseases. Pharmacol Ther, 2017; 174, 63−78. doi:  10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.02.020
[28] Liang GF, Zhu YL, Ali DJ, et al. Engineered exosomes for targeted co-delivery of miR-21 inhibitor and chemotherapeutics to reverse drug resistance in colon cancer. J Nanobiotechnology, 2020; 18, 10. doi:  10.1186/s12951-019-0563-2
[29] Chen MB, Ji XZ, Liu YY, et al. Ulk1 over-expression in human gastric cancer is correlated with patients’ T classification and cancer relapse. Oncotarget, 2017; 8, 33704−12. doi:  10.18632/oncotarget.16734
[30] Shukla S, Patric IRP, Patil V, et al. Methylation silencing of ULK2, an autophagy gene, is essential for astrocyte transformation and tumor growth. J Biol Chem, 2014; 289, 22306−18. doi:  10.1074/jbc.M114.567032
[31] Hao KY, Zhao S, Cui D, et al. Androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide induces autophagy and apoptosis via ULK2 upregulation in human bladder cancer cells. Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2017; 10, 7603−15.
[32] Cheng H, Yang ZT, Bai YQ, et al. Overexpression of Ulk2 inhibits proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Lett, 2019; 17, 79−86.
[33] Long JL, He QL, Yin YT, et al. The effect of miRNA and autophagy on colorectal cancer. Cell Prolif, 2020; 53, e12900. doi:  10.1111/cpr.12900
[34] Lee EJ, Tournier C. The requirement of uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and ULK2 in the regulation of autophagy. Autophagy, 2011; 7, 689−95. doi:  10.4161/auto.7.7.15450
[35] Scarola M, Schoeftner S, Schneider C, et al. miR-335 directly targets Rb1 (pRb/p105) in a proximal connection to p53-dependent stress response. Cancer Res, 2010; 70, 6925−33. doi:  10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0141