2015, 28(1): 57-71.
2022, 35(7): 573-603.
In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that about 330 million patients suffer from CVD in China. The number of patients suffering from stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, lower extremity artery disease and hypertension are 13.00 million, 11.39 million, 8.90 million, 5.00 million, 4.87 million, 2.50 million, 2.00 million, 45.30 million, and 245.00 million, respectively. Given that China is challenged by the dual pressures of population aging and steady rise in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the burden caused by CVD will continue to increase, which has set new requirements for CVD prevention and treatment and the allocation of medical resources in China. It is important to reduce the prevalence through primary prevention, increase the allocation of medical resources for CVD emergency and critical care, and provide rehabilitation services and secondary prevention to reduce the risk of recurrence, re-hospitalization and disability in CVD survivors. The number of people suffering from hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in China has reached hundreds of millions. Since blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose levels rise mostly insidiously, vascular disease or even serious events such as myocardial infarction and stroke often already occured at the time of detection in this population. Hence, more strategies and tasks should be taken to prevent risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, and more efforts should be made in the assessment of cardiovascular health status and the prevention, treatment, and research of early pathological changes.
2021, 34(12): 937-951.
Objective We aimed to investigate and interpret the associations between socioeconomic factors and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension at the provincial level in China. Methods A nationally and provincially representative sample of 179,059 adults from the China Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance study in 2015–2016 was used to estimate hypertension burden. The spatial Durbin error model was fitted to investigate socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension indicators. Results Overall, it was estimated that 29.20% of the participants were hypertensive nationwide, among whom, 34.32% were aware of their condition, 27.69% had received antihypertensive treatment, and 7.81% had controlled their condition. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) was associated with hypertension prevalence (coefficient: −2.95, 95% CI: −5.46, −0.45) and control (coefficient: 6.35, 95% CI: 1.36, 11.34) among adjacent provinces and was also associated with awareness (coefficient: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12, 4.74) and treatment (coefficient: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.14) in local province. Beds of internal medicine (coefficient: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.23) was associated with control in local province. Old dependency ratio (coefficient: −3.58, 95% CI: −5.35, −1.81) was associated with treatment among adjacent provinces and with control (coefficient: −1.69, 95% CI: −2.42, −0.96) in local province. Conclusion Hypertension indicators were not only directly influenced by socioeconomic factors of local area but also indirectly affected by characteristics of geographical neighbors. Population-level strategies should involve optimizing supportive socioeconomic environment by integrating clinical care and public health services to decrease hypertension burden.
2020, 33(1): 1-10.
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
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2022, 35(7): 622-632.
Objective To investigate the regulatory relationship of Protein Phosphatase 2 Regulatory Subunit B"Alpha (PPP2R3A) and hexokinase 1 (HK1) in glycolysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods In HepG2 and Huh7 cells, PPP2R3A expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression by plasmid transfection. The PPP2R3A-related genes were searched by RNA sequencing. Glycolysis levels were measured by glucose uptake and lactate production. QRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay were performed to detect the changes of PPP2R3A and HK1. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assay were used to study the roles of HK1 regulation by PPP2R3A. Results RNA sequencing data revealed that PPP2R3A siRNA significantly downregulated the expression of HK1. PPP2R3A gene overexpression promotes, while gene silencing suppresses, the level of HK1 and glycolysis in HCC cells. In HCC tissue samples, PPP2R3A and HK1 were colocalized in the cytoplasm, and their expression showed a positive correlation. HK1 inhibition abrogated the promotion of glycolysis, proliferation, migration and invasion by PPP2R3A overexpression in liver cancer cells. Conclusion Our findings showed the correlation of PPP2R3A and HK1 in the glycolysis of HCC, which reveals a new mechanism for the oncogenic roles of PPP2R3A in cancer.
2022, 35(7): 613-621.
Objective To analyze the prevalence of dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and to analyze the risk factors for AMD. Methods A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted involving 14,440 individuals. We assessed the prevalence of dry and wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and analyzed the risk factors for AMD. Results The prevalence of wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and the prevalence of dry AMD was 17% and 16.4%, respectively. The prevalence of wet AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dry AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 16.6%, 16.2%, 15.2%, and 17.2%, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, and use of hypoglycemic drugs or lowering blood pressure drugs were corrected in the risk factor analysis of AMD. Diabetes, diabetes/hypertension, diabetes/hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/hypertension/hyperlipidemia were analyzed. None of the factors analyzed in the current study increased the risk for the onset of AMD. Conclusion There was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among subjects with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Diabetes co-existing with hypertension and hyperlipidemia were not shown to be risk factors for the onset of dry AMD.
2022, 35(7): 604-612.
Objective This study aimed to analyze the temporal trends and characteristics associated with waist circumference (WC) among elderly Chinese people. Methods We used data from 3,096 adults ≥ 65 years who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), an ongoing cohort study, between 1993 and 2015. We used longitudinal quantile regression models to explore the temporal trends and characteristics associated with WC. Results WC increased gradually among the elderly Chinese population during the survey. The WC curves shifted to the right with wider distributions and lower peaks in men and women. All WC percentile curves shifted upward with similar growth rates in the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles. The WC means increased from 78 cm to 86 cm during the 22 years of our study. WC significantly increased with age and body mass index and decreased with physical activity (PA). These associations were stronger in the higher percentiles than in the lower percentiles. Conclusions WC is rising among Chinese adults ≥ 65 years. Factors affecting WC in elderly people may have different effects on different percentiles of the WC distribution, and PA was the most important protective factor in the higher percentiles of the WC distribution. Thus, different interventional strategies are needed.
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2022, 35(7): 1-2.
2019, 32(2): 107-120.
Objective Our aim was to explore whether heat stress protein (HSP) 9 preferentially expresses under heat stress and affects the expression of other heat stress proteins as well as to explore the effect of HSPB9 overexpression and knockdown on apoptosis in DF-1. Methods We used gene cloning to construct an overexpression vector of the target gene, and synthesized the target gene interference fragment to transfect the chicken fibroblast cell line. Gene and protein expression, as well as apoptosis, were detected by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Results Chicken DF-1 cells showed an early state of apoptosis in the early stages of HSPB9 overexpression. In the later stages, as HSPB9 expression increased, the cells showed inhibition of apoptosis. When the cells were under heat stress, HSPB9 expression was much higher and earlier than the expression of HSPB1 and HSPA2. In addition, high expression of HSPB9 had a negative effect on HSPB1 and HSPA2 expression. This negative feedback decreased the percentage of early stages of apoptotic cells and promoted cell survival. Conclusion HSPB9 expression, although rapid, is detrimental to cell survival early during its overexpression. In heat stress, HSPB9 overexpression, while inhibiting the expression of HSPA2 and HSPB1, is beneficial to cell survival.
2022, 35(7): 633-640.
2019, 32(6): 419-426.
Objective Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ. Methods HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type Ⅰ, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang Ⅱ in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type Ⅰ and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang Ⅱ in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Conclusion Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.
2017, 30(5): 373-375.
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has proved to be the most important measure for rabies prevention and control. There is little information regarding adverse reactions to the Essen and 2-1-1 regimens in preschool children (aged 0-6). We reexamined the outcomes of 1, 109 preschool children who were vaccinated using SPEEDA under the Essen regimen between January 2011 and December 2012 and 1, 267 preschool children under the 2-1-1 regimen between January 2013 and December 2014. We find that, in preschool children, the febrile reaction after the first 2-dose injection in the 2-1-1 regimen was significantly higher than that induced by the first 1-dose in the Essen procedure. Thus, we recommend that the Essen regimen should still be used for rabies PEP in preschool children.
2019, 32(8): 578-591.
Objective We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. Methods In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage:(a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). Results In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. Conclusion These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.
2022, 35(7): 641-647.
2021, 34(6): 465-477.
Objective To investigate the molecular mechanism of high phosphorylation levels of cofilin-1 (p-CFL-1) associated with paclitaxel resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. Methods Cells displaying varying levels of p-CFL-1 and CFL-1 were created by plasmid transfection and shRNA interference. Cell inhibition rate indicating paclitaxel efficacy was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and protein levels were detected by western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of phosphokinases and phosphatases of CFL-1. Survival analysis evaluated the correlation between the prognosis of EOC patients and the levels of p-CFL-1 and slingshot-1 (SSH-1). Results High levels of p-CFL-1 were observed in EOC cells that survived treatment with high doses of paclitaxel. SKOV3 cell mutants with upregulated p-CFL-1 showed impaired paclitaxel efficacy, as well as decreased apoptosis rates and pro-survival patterns of apoptosis-specific protein expression. Cytoplasmic accumulation of p-CFL-1 inhibited paclitaxel-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. SSH-1 silencing mediated CFL-1 phosphorylation in paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3 cells. Clinically, the high level of p-CFL-1 and the low level of SSH-1 in EOC tissues were closely related to chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis in EOC patients. Conclusion The SSH-1/p-CFL-1 signaling pathway mediates paclitaxel resistance by apoptosis inhibition in EOC and is expected to be a potential prognostic predictor.
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2021, 34(12): 0-0.
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2022, 35(6): 1-2.
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2021, 34(12): 1-2.
Objective Findings from the previous studies have suggested a relationship between ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP-1) or plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 (PC-1) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (K121Q, rs1044498) and genetic susceptibility to obesity. However, such relationship is not reproduced by some currently available studies. In this context, the present study is aimed to quantitatively analyze the association of K121Q variant with obesity in all published case-control studies in European adult populations. Methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI web of science databases were retrieved. The studies evaluating the association of ENPP1/PC1 gene K121Q polymorphism with obesity were included, in which sufficient data were presented to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (Cls). Results Ten case-control studies meeting the inclusion criteria identified a total of 24,324 subjects including 11,372 obese and 12,952 control subjects. The meta-analysis results showed a statistically significant association of K121Q with obesity [OR (95%Cl): 1.25 (1.04-1.52) P=0.021] under a recessive model of inheritance (QQ vs. KK+KQ) without heterogeneity or publication bias. Conclusions The results from the present study have indicated that ENPP1/PC1 Q121 variant may increase the risk of obesity and that more well-designed studies based on a larger population will be required to further evaluate the role of ENPP1/PC1 gene K121Q, polymorphism in obesity and other related metabolic syndromes.