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Report on Cardiovascular Health and Diseases in China 2021: An Updated Summary (730 day view times: 1398)
The Writing Committee of the Report on Cardiovascular Health and Diseases in China
2022, 35(7): 573-603. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.079
In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that about 330 million patients suffer from CVD in China. The number of patients suffering from stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, lower extremity artery disease and hypertension are 13.00 million, 11.39 million, 8.90 million, 5.00 million, 4.87 million, 2.50 million, 2.00 million, 45.30 million, and 245.00 million, respectively. Given that China is challenged by the dual pressures of population aging and steady rise in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the burden caused by CVD will continue to increase, which has set new requirements for CVD prevention and treatment and the allocation of medical resources in China. It is important to reduce the prevalence through primary prevention, increase the allocation of medical resources for CVD emergency and critical care, and provide rehabilitation services and secondary prevention to reduce the risk of recurrence, re-hospitalization and disability in CVD survivors. The number of people suffering from hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in China has reached hundreds of millions. Since blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose levels rise mostly insidiously, vascular disease or even serious events such as myocardial infarction and stroke often already occured at the time of detection in this population. Hence, more strategies and tasks should be taken to prevent risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, and more efforts should be made in the assessment of cardiovascular health status and the prevention, treatment, and research of early pathological changes.
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Bone Injury and Fracture Healing Biology (730 day view times: 1050)
Ahmad Oryan, Somayeh Monazzah, Amin Bigham-Sadegh
2015, 28(1): 57-71. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.006
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Report on Cardiovascular Health and Diseases in China 2022: an Updated Summary (730 day view times: 409)
The Writing Committee of the Report on Cardiovascular Health and Diseases in China
2023, 36(8): 669-701. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.106
In the past 30 years, the accessibility and quality index of medical care have made remarkable progress in China, ranking the first among middle-income countries. Many cardiovascular technologies are at or near the world's leading level, and significant progress has been achieved in China solving the problem of “treatment difficulty” of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, due to the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles among Chinese residents, a huge population with CVD risk factors, accelerated population aging, and other reasons, the incidence and mortality rate of CVD are still increasing, and the turning point of the decline in disease burden has not appeared yet in China. In terms of proportions of disease mortality among urban and rural residents, CVD still ranks the first. In 2020, CVD accounted for 48.00% and 45.86% of the causes of death in rural and urban areas, respectively; two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that the number of current CVD patients in China is around 330 million, including 13 million stroke, 11.39 million coronary heart disease, 8.9 million heart failure, 5 million pulmonary heart disease, 4.87 million atrial fibrillation, 2.5 million rheumatic heart disease, 2 million congenital heart disease, 45.3 million peripheral artery disease, and 245 million hypertension cases. China has entered a new stage of transformation from high-speed development to high-quality development, and the prevention and control of CVD in China should also shift from previous emphasis on scale growth to strategies focusing more on strategic and key technological development in order to curb the trend of increasing incidence and mortality rates of CVD.
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Application of Nanopore Sequencing Technology in the Clinical Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (730 day view times: 408)
ZHANG Lu Lu, ZHANG Chi, PENG Jun Ping
2022, 35(5): 381-392. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.054
Abstract: Infectious diseases are an enormous public health burden and a growing threat to human health worldwide. Emerging or classic recurrent pathogens, or pathogens with resistant traits, challenge our ability to diagnose and control infectious diseases. Nanopore sequencing technology has the potential to enhance our ability to diagnose, interrogate, and track infectious diseases due to the unrestricted read length and system portability. This review focuses on the application of nanopore sequencing technology in the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases and includes the following: (i) a brief introduction to nanopore sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing platforms; (ii) strategies for nanopore-based sequencing technologies; and (iii) applications of nanopore sequencing technology in monitoring emerging pathogenic microorganisms, molecular detection of clinically relevant drug-resistance genes, and characterization of disease-related microbial communities. Finally, we discuss the current challenges, potential opportunities, and future outlook for applying nanopore sequencing technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
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Burden of Cirrhosis and Other Chronic Liver Diseases Caused by Specific Etiologies in China, 1990−2016: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (730 day view times: 405)
LI Man, WANG Zhuo Qun, ZHANG Lu, ZHENG Hao, LIU Dian Wu, ZHOU Mai Geng
2020, 33(1): 1-10. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.001
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
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Evidence on Invasion of Blood, Adipose Tissues, Nervous System and Reproductive System of Mice After a Single Oral Exposure: Nanoplastics versus Microplastics (730 day view times: 404)
YANG Zuo Sen, BAI Ying Long, JIN Cui Hong, NA Jun, ZHANG Rui, GAO Yuan, PAN Guo Wei, YAN Ling Jun, SUN Wei
2022, 35(11): 1025-1037. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.131
  Objective  This study was designed to provide the evidences on the toxicokinetics of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) in the bodies of mammals.  Methods  100 nm, 3 μm, and 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads were administered to mice once by gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The levels and change of fluorescence intensity in samples of blood, subcutaneous fat, perirenal fat, peritesticular fat, cerebrum, cerebellum, testis, and epididymis were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after administration using an IVIS Spectrum small-animal imaging system. Histological examination, confocal laser scanning, and transmission electron microscope were performed to corroborate the findings.  Results  After confirming fluorescent dye leaching and impact of pH value, increased levels of fluorescence intensity in blood, all adipose tissues examined, cerebrum, cerebellum, and testis were measured in the 100 nm group, but not in the 3 and 10 μm groups except in the cerebellum and testis at 4 h for the 3 μm PS beads. The presence of PS beads was further corroborated.  Conclusion  After a single oral exposure, NPs are absorbed rapidly in the blood, accumulate in adipose tissues, and penetrate the blood-brain/testis barriers. As expected, the toxicokinetics of MPs is significantly size-dependent in mammals.
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Correlation between Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality in College Students (730 day view times: 330)
ZHANG Yu Tong, HUANG Tao, ZHOU Fang, HUANG Ao Di, JI Xiao Qi, HE Lu, GENG Qiang, WANG Jia, MEI Can, XU Yu Jia, YANG Ze Long, ZHAN Jian Bo, CHENG Jing
2022, 35(7): 648-651. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.084
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The Influence of Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hyperlipidemia on the Onset of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in North China: The Kailuan Eye Study (730 day view times: 328)
ZHANG Yong Peng, WANG Ya Xing, ZHOU Jin Qiong, WANG Qian, YAN Yan Ni, YANG Xuan, YANG Jing Yan, ZHOU Wen Jia, WANG Ping, SHEN Chang, YANG Ming, LUAN Ya Nan, WANG Jin Yuan, WU Shou Ling, CHEN Shuo Hua, WANG Hai Wei, FANG Li Jian, WAN Qian Qian, ZHU Jing Yuan, NIE Zi Han, CHEN Yu Ning, XIE Ying, JONAS JB, WEI Wen Bin
2022, 35(7): 613-621. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.081
  Objective   To analyze the prevalence of dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and to analyze the risk factors for AMD.  Methods  A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted involving 14,440 individuals. We assessed the prevalence of dry and wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and analyzed the risk factors for AMD.  Results  The prevalence of wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and the prevalence of dry AMD was 17% and 16.4%, respectively. The prevalence of wet AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dry AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 16.6%, 16.2%, 15.2%, and 17.2%, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, and use of hypoglycemic drugs or lowering blood pressure drugs were corrected in the risk factor analysis of AMD. Diabetes, diabetes/hypertension, diabetes/hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/hypertension/hyperlipidemia were analyzed. None of the factors analyzed in the current study increased the risk for the onset of AMD.  Conclusion  There was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among subjects with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Diabetes co-existing with hypertension and hyperlipidemia were not shown to be risk factors for the onset of dry AMD.
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Data Resource Profile: A Protocol of China National Diabetic Chronic Complications Study (730 day view times: 312)
HOU Xu Hong, WANG Li Min, CHEN Si Yu, LIANG Ye Bei, ZHANG Mei, HUANG Zheng Jing, CHEN Hong Li, WU Jing Zhu, WU Jing, JIA Wei Ping
2022, 35(7): 633-640. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.078
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Effects of Short-Term Forest Bathing on Human Health in a Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest in Zhejiang Province, China (730 day view times: 305)
MAO Gen Xiang, LAN Xiao Guang, CAO Yong Bao, CHEN Zhuo Mei, HE Zhi Hua, LV Yuan Dong, WANG Ya Zhen, HU Xi Lian, WANG Guo Fu, YAN Jing
2012, 25(3): 317-324. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.010
Objective To investigate the effects of short-term forest bathing on human health.Methods Twenty healthy male university students participated as subjects and were randomly divided into two groups of 10.One group was sent on a two-night trip to a broad-leaved evergreen forest,and the other was sent to a city area.Serum cytokine levels reflecting inflammatory and stress response,indicators reflecting oxidative stress,the distribution of leukocyte subsets,and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations were measured before and after the experiment to evaluate the positive health effects of forest environments.A profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation was used to assess changes in mood states.Results No significant differences in the baseline values of the indicators were observed between the two groups before the experiment.Subjects exposed to the forest environment showed reduced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory level,as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde,interleukin-6,and tumor necrosis factor α levels compared with the urban group.Serum cortisol levels were also lower than in the urban group.Notably,the concentration of plasma ET-1 was much lower in subjects exposed to the forest environment.The POMS evaluation showed that after exposure to the forest environment,subjects had lower scores in the negative subscales,and the score for vigor was increased.Conclusion Forest bathing is beneficial to human health,perhaps through preventive effects related to several pathological factors.
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Cover (730 day view times: 304)
2023, 36(7).
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Overexpression of Protein Phosphatase 2 Regulatory Subunit B"Alpha Promotes Glycolysis by Regulating Hexokinase 1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (730 day view times: 300)
JIAO Ning, JI Wan Sheng, ZHANG Biao, SHANG Yu Kui, ZHANG Yu Chen, YU Wei Qun, JIN Hai Long, LI Chao, ZHANG Cheng Ying, YAN Cheng, YUE Wen, ZHANG Qing
2022, 35(7): 622-632. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.082
  Objective   To investigate the regulatory relationship of Protein Phosphatase 2 Regulatory Subunit B"Alpha (PPP2R3A) and hexokinase 1 (HK1) in glycolysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).   Methods   In HepG2 and Huh7 cells, PPP2R3A expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression by plasmid transfection. The PPP2R3A-related genes were searched by RNA sequencing. Glycolysis levels were measured by glucose uptake and lactate production. QRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay were performed to detect the changes of PPP2R3A and HK1. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assay were used to study the roles of HK1 regulation by PPP2R3A.   Results   RNA sequencing data revealed that PPP2R3A siRNA significantly downregulated the expression of HK1. PPP2R3A gene overexpression promotes, while gene silencing suppresses, the level of HK1 and glycolysis in HCC cells. In HCC tissue samples, PPP2R3A and HK1 were colocalized in the cytoplasm, and their expression showed a positive correlation. HK1 inhibition abrogated the promotion of glycolysis, proliferation, migration and invasion by PPP2R3A overexpression in liver cancer cells.   Conclusion   Our findings showed the correlation of PPP2R3A and HK1 in the glycolysis of HCC, which reveals a new mechanism for the oncogenic roles of PPP2R3A in cancer.
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Contents (730 day view times: 295)
2023, 36(7): 1-2.
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Trends in Lipids Level and Dyslipidemia among Chinese Adults, 2002-2015 (730 day view times: 289)
SONG Peng Kun, MAN Qing Qing, LI Hong, PANG Shao Jie, JIA Shan Shan, LI Yu Qian, HE Li, ZHAO Wen Hua, ZHANG Jian
2019, 32(8): 559-570. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.074
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
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Waist Circumference of the Elderly over 65 Years Old in China Increased Gradually from 1993 to 2015: A Cohort Study (730 day view times: 280)
YANG Xin Li, OUYANG Yi Fei, ZHANG Xiao Fan, SU Chang, BAI Jing, ZHANG Bing, HONG Zhong Xin, DU Shu Fa, WANG Hui Jun
2022, 35(7): 604-612. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.080
  Objective  This study aimed to analyze the temporal trends and characteristics associated with waist circumference (WC) among elderly Chinese people.  Methods  We used data from 3,096 adults ≥ 65 years who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), an ongoing cohort study, between 1993 and 2015. We used longitudinal quantile regression models to explore the temporal trends and characteristics associated with WC.  Results  WC increased gradually among the elderly Chinese population during the survey. The WC curves shifted to the right with wider distributions and lower peaks in men and women. All WC percentile curves shifted upward with similar growth rates in the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles. The WC means increased from 78 cm to 86 cm during the 22 years of our study. WC significantly increased with age and body mass index and decreased with physical activity (PA). These associations were stronger in the higher percentiles than in the lower percentiles.  Conclusions  WC is rising among Chinese adults ≥ 65 years. Factors affecting WC in elderly people may have different effects on different percentiles of the WC distribution, and PA was the most important protective factor in the higher percentiles of the WC distribution. Thus, different interventional strategies are needed.
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Cover (730 day view times: 279)
2022, 35(7).
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Association between Serum Uric Acid to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Risk among Chinese Adults (730 day view times: 278)
ZHAO Hui, QIU Xia, LI Hua Zi, CUI Jia Jia, SUN Yong Ye
2023, 36(1): 1-9. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.111
  Objective   The aim of this case-control study was to explore the association between serum uric acid to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (UHR) and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults.  Methods   A total of 636 patients with NAFLD and 754 controls were enrolled from the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, China, between January and December 2016. All patients completed a comprehensive questionnaire survey and underwent abdominal ultrasound examination and a blood test. NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography after other etiologies were excluded. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline model were conducted to evaluate the relationship of UHR with NAFLD risk.  Results   The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for NAFLD in the highest versus lowest quartile of UHR was 3.888 (2.324–6.504). In analyses stratified by sex and age, we observed significant and positive associations between UHR and the risk of NAFLD in each subgroup. In analyses stratified by body mass index (BMI), a significant and positive association was found only in individuals with a BMI of ≥ 24 kg/m2. Our dose-response analysis indicated a linear positive correlation between UHR and the risk of NAFLD.  Conclusion   UHR is positively associated with the risk of NAFLD and may serve as an innovative and noninvasive marker for identifying individuals at risk of NAFLD.
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Contents (730 day view times: 261)
2022, 35(7): 1-2.
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Visual Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Combined CRISPR/Cas12a and Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (730 day view times: 258)
JIANG Han Ji, TAN Rong, JIN Min, YIN Jing, GAO Zhi Xian, LI Hai Bei, SHI Dan Yang, ZHOU Shu Qing, CHEN Tian Jiao, YANG Dong, LI Jun Wen
2022, 35(6): 518-527. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.069
  Objective  To establish an ultra-sensitive, ultra-fast, visible detection method for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP).   Methods  We established a new method for detecting the tdh and trh genes of VP using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 12a (CRISPR/Cas12a) combined with recombinase polymerase amplification and visual detection (CRISPR/Cas12a-VD).   Results  CRISPR/Cas12a-VD accurately detected target DNA at concentrations as low as 10-18 M (single molecule detection) within 30 min without cross-reactivity against other bacteria. When detecting pure cultures of VP, the consistency of results reached 100% compared with real-time PCR. The method accurately analysed pure cultures and spiked shrimp samples at concentrations as low as 102 CFU/g.   Conclusion  The novel CRISPR/Cas12a-VD method for detecting VP performed better than traditional detection methods, such as real-time PCR, and has great potential for preventing the spread of pathogens.
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The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Prognosis of Long-COVID (730 day view times: 256)
DU Ying, ZHANG Jie, WU Li Juan, ZHANG Qun, WANG You Xin
2022, 35(12): 1133-1139. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.143