2004 Vol. 17, No. 4

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Potential Oxidative Stress in the Bodies of Electric Arc Welding Operators:Effect of Photochemical Smog
2004, 17(4): 381-389.
To investigate whether photochemical smog emitted during the process of electric arc welding might cause oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the bodies of welding operators. Methods Seventy electric arc welding operators (WOs) and 70 healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled in a randomized controlled study design, in which the levels of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and the level of lipoperoxide (LPO) in erythrocytes were determined by spectrophotometry. Results Compared with the average values of the above experimental parameters in the HVs group, the average values of VC and VE in plasma as well as those of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the WOs group were significantly decreased (P<0.005-0.0001), while the average value of LPO in erythrocytes in the WOs group was significantly increased (P<0.0001). The findings from the partial correlation analysis on the controlling of age suggested that with a prolonged duration of exposure to photochemical smog the values of VC, VE, SOD, and GPX, except for CAT, in the WOs were decreased gradually (P<0.05-0.005), the value of LPO in the WOs was increased gradually (P<0.001), and that with the ozone dose increased in the air in each worksite VC, VE, SOD, CAT and GPX decreased (P<0.005-0.001), but LPO increased (P<0.001). The findings from the reliability analysis for the VC, VE, SOD, CAT, GPX, and LPO values which were used to reflect oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the WOs showed that the reliability coefficients' alpha (6 items) was 0.8021, P<0.0001, and that the standardized item alpha was 0.9577, P<0.0001. Conclusion Findings in the present study suggest that there exists an oxidative stress induced by long-term exposure to photochemical smog in the bodies of WOs, thereby causing potential oxidative and lipoperoxidative damages in their bodies.
Enhancement of Urinary Elimination of 3-Bromobenzanthrone Metabolites by Oral Supplementation of Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pigs
2004, 17(4): 390-396.
3-Bromobenzanthrone (3-BBA), an anthraquinone intermediate dye, is extensively used in textile industry. Since, our prior studies have shown that 3-BBA caused significant depletion of ascorbic acid (AsA) levels, the effect of exogenous supplementation of AsA on the urinary elimination of 3-BBA metabolites was investigated.Method Guinea pigs were treated with single oral dose of 3-BBA (50 mg/kg b. Wt.) in groundnut oil while another group was treated with single oral dose of 3-BBA (50 mg/kg b. Wt.) along with 3 day prior and post oral supplementation of AsA. Control groups were either treated with groundnut oil or AsA alone. Urine from individual animals was collected, extracted and analysed on HPTLC.Results The highest elimination of 3-BBA (75 (g) was found to be in 0-24 h urine fraction which decreased to 18 (g and 5 (g in the two subsequent 24 hourly fractions of urine. Exogenous supplementation of AsA increased the total urinary elimination of 3-BBA by almost 77%. A total of 10 fluorescent metabolites excluding the parent compound were eliminated in the urine of guinea pigs treated with 3-BBA. Densitometric scanning of chromatogram showed different peaks at Rf 0.18, 0.22, 0.27, 0.34, 0.40, 0.48, 0.56, 0.66, 0.72, 0.80, and 0.95 which were eliminated and marked as urinary metabolite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 respectively. AsA not only significantly enhanced the elimination of 3-BBA metabolites but also modified the pattern of metabolites drastically in 0-6 h, 6-24 h and 24-48 h urine fractions.Conclusion These results indicate that AsA may be useful in protecting the toxicity of 3-BBA by fascilitating the urinary metabolite(s) excretion of 3-BBA.
Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites
2004, 17(4): 397-401.
To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.
Scavenging Action of Zinc and Green Tea Polyphenol on Cisplatin and Nickel Induced Nitric Oxide Generation and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats
2004, 17(4): 402-409.
Toxic metal ions have been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Metallothionines (MT) and plant flavonoids have been reported in the intervention against oxidative damage. We investigated the effect of zinc induced MT and green tea polyphenol (GTP) in reducing the oxidative responses induced by nickel and platinum. Methods Zinc (10 mg/kg b. wt, sc) was administered to rats twice at a gap of 24hrs and GTP (10 mg/100 mL in drinking water) was fed ad libitum for 8 days. Nickel chloride (150 umol/kgb.wt, ip) and cisplatin (50 (mol/kg b.wt, sc) was administered to rats 24 h after Zn or GTP pre-treatment. Animals of all the groups were sacrificed 16 hrs after treatment and biochemical markers for toxicity were monitored. Results Zinc or GTP pre-treatment caused significant protection against nickel or cisplatin enhanced mortality in rats, and reduction in lipid peroxidation and NO. Conclusion It is proposed that inhibition of ROS and NO by GTP and zinc may prove useful as a selective pharmacological agent in the amelioration of metal toxicity.
HIV/AIDS-related Discrimination in Shanxi Rural Areas of China
2004, 17(4): 410-417.
In order to explore the features of discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, a community-based intervention was carried out in two pilot communities of X County of Shanxi Province from September 2002 to October 2003. Methods Data were collected using qualitative methods (in-depth interview and focus group discussion) and anonymously structured questionnaires. Results (1) Severe discrimination against people infected with HIV/AIDS was revealed in the target communities. However, the response to HIV/AIDS was different in each community. (2) People were reluctant to disclose their HIV status or get tested for HIV, which endangered their sexual partners to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourses. (3) Attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS varied. (4) Public education promoted a better understanding of HIV/AIDS which in turn improved community attitudes and behaviors towards people with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related discrimination undermines both individuals' and communities' responses to HIV/AIDS and may be a serious obstacle towards effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control.
Polymorphisms of Exon 17 of Insulin-Receptor Gene in Pathogenesis of Human Disorders With Insulin Resistance
2004, 17(4): 418-425.
To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of insulin-receptor (INSR) gene and insulin resistance in a population-based study in China. Methods Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to the amplify Exon 17 of INSR gene and all amplified products were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found at the following loci: T to TC at the locus of 10699 (Tyr984), G to GC at the locus of 10731 (Glu994), Deletion G at the locus of 10798 (Asp1017), C to T/TC at the locus of 10923 (His1058), C to CA at the locus of 10954 (Leu1069), and T to TA at the locus of 10961 (Phe1071), which might not change the amino acid sequence. The data were in agreement with the test of Hardy-Weinberg balance (P>0.05). Among the 345 cases, all clinical indices were higher in males than in females except for HDL cholesterol (P<0.05). The proportion of insulin resistance in males (64.4%) was higher than that in females (35.6%, OR=1.83). It implied that the relative risk of developing insulin resistance in males was 1.83 times as high as that in females. The biochemical indices in different loci on Exon 17 showed that the individuals with deletion G on the locus of 10798 had lower TG (P=0.052) and higher HDL (P=0.027) than those without deletion G on the same site. Homa-Index was lower in those with deletion G than in those without deletion G (P>0.05). After sex stratification in analysis,all allele frequencies on the six loci of SNPs of Exon 17 had different distributions between the insulin resistant group and the control group, but P>0.05. Conclusion SNPs of Exon 17 of INSR gene are unlikely to play a direct role in the pathogenesis of human disorders with insulin resistance.
Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn Levels in Soils of Shika Area, Nigeria
2004, 17(4): 426-431.
Heavy metals presented in toxic amounts can become injurious to human health. In areas where there is a high level of human activities on soils (such as agriculture and grazing) studies are therefore required from time to time to monitor levels of such metals in the soils in order to identify the point in time when toxicity problems become real. The 英文摘要: of this paper is to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) in soils under cultivation and grazing practices in Shika, a rural area of Kaduna state of Nigeria. Method In this study, soil samples collected from three different categories of locations (cultivated, grazed, and uncultivated/non- grazed serving as a control) across Shika area, Nigeria, were analysed for some trace metal levels (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each category, multiple sites were chosen to accommodate all possible intra-category variations, especially in terms of land use and management history and topographic characteristics. Topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (20-30 cm) samples were collected from every site and analysed for the above metals. Averaged values of the metals for the three categories revealed that Zn is the most abundant metal, followed by Fe, then Mn and Cu the least. Results The results obtained indicate that the cultivation practices, and to a lesser extent grazing, in the area result in higher levels of all the metals than in the control, suggesting that crop immobilization of the metals from soils of the area is low, and that their systematic accumulation is taking place in cultivated soils of the area. Prospects of having elevated soil levels of the metals due to cultivation practices in the area therefore seem quite high. Conclusion On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that grazing and cultivation practices have in general caused some significant elevations in the bioavailable (i.e the plant available forms) levels of Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in soils of the area.
Genes Differentially Expressed in Human Lung Fibroblast Cells Transformed by Glycidyl Methacrylate
2004, 17(4): 432-441.
To define the differences in gene expression patterns between glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-transformed human lung fibroblast cells (2BS cells) and controls. Methods The mRNA differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) technique was used. cDNAs were synthesized by reverse transcription and amplified by PCR using 30 primer combinations. After being screened by dot blot analysis, differentially expressed cDNAs were cloned, sequenced and confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Results Eighteen differentially expressed cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, of which 17 were highly homologous to known genes (homology = 89%-100%) and one was an unknown gene. Northern blot analysis confirmed that eight genes encoding human zinc finger protein 217 (ZNF217), mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK-3), ribosomal protein (RP) L15, RPL41, RPS16, TBX3, stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) and mouse ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBC), respectively, were up-regulated, and three genes including human transforming growth factor ( inducible gene (Betaig-h3), (-1,2-mannosidase 1A2 (MAN 1A2) gene and an unknown gene were down-regulated in the GMA-transformed cells. Conclusion Analysis of the potential function of these genes suggest that they may be possibly linked to a variety of cellular processes such as transcription, signal transduction, protein synthesis and growth, and that their differential expression could contribute to the GMA-induced neoplastic transformation.
Changes of Expressions of VEGF, bFGF, and Angiogenesis, and Effect of Benazepril, bFGF on Angiogenesis in Acute Myocardial Infarction Model of the Rabbits
2004, 17(4): 442-451.
To explore the changes of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and angiogenesis, and the effects of bFGF, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibiter(ACEI) benazepril on the angiogenesis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model of rabbits, and to provide a probable evidence for the treatment of AMI. Methods AMI model was established by ligating anterior descending branch of coronary artery of Japan-Sino hybridization white rabbits. The postoperative rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was treated with different drugs. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with normal saline (NS) for 28 and 14 days (d), group 3 and 4 with bFGF for 28 and 14 d, groups 5 with benazepril for 14 d, and group 6 with benazepril and bFGF for 14 d respectively. The rabbits were killed on the 14th or 28th d and their hearts were excised, sectioned and stained with HE, Masson trichrome to observe VEGF, bFGF and CD34 under a microscope, which were quantified with a computer-assisted morphometry. Results Compared with group 1, the granulation tissue of infarction zone (IZ) in group 2 freshened up, and the capillary density (CD) in IZ was increased (P=0.002). The CD in the IZ as well as VEGF and bFGF in groups 3 and 4 were increased respectively (P=0.011-0.037). In group 5 the changes of VEGF and bFGF were not found in the IZ and the border zone (BZ) while CD was significantly increased (35.4% and 25.6%, P=0.036 and 0.037). Compared with group 2, the CD in the IZ and BZ of group 6 was significantly increased (63.4% and 44.3% P=0.007 and 0.007), meanwhile VEGF and bFGF were increased. Compared with group 5, only VEGF was increased. Conclusion Intravenous bFGF may increase VEGF and bFGF significantly, thus promoting the angiogenesis in the IZ and BZ in cardiac infarction as VEGF and bFGF are the potent angiogenic growth factors. Benazepril may promote angiogenesis in the IZ and BZ in cardiac infarction, but its mechanism is irrelative to the expression of VEGF and bFGF. The combination of benazepril and bFGF may promote, to some extent, the expression of VEGF and bFGF, but their effect on angiogenesis has not been found.
Monitoring of Pollution of Air Fine Particles (PM2.5) and Study on Their Genetic Toxicity
2004, 17(4): 452-458.
To compare PM2.5 pollation level between the city of coal-fuel pollution (Taiyuan) and the city of pollution mixed with coal fuels and vehicle exhausts (Beijing), to analyze the concentration of B[a]p and Pb in the pollutants, and to study the DNA damage by PM2.5. Methods Air fine particles (PM2.5) were collected in Beijing and Taiyuan by means of the filter membrane method, the concentration of B[a]p and Pb were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy respectveily, and the damage of DNA by PM2.5 was detected by single cell gel-electrophoresis (SCGE) using the human lung epithelial cells (A549) as target cells. Results The concentration of PM2.5 in the winter of Beijing was 0.028-0.436 mg/m3, and that in Taiyuan was 0.132-0.681 mg/m3. The concentration of B[a]p was 0.104 and 0.156 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively, whereas the concentration of Pb was 1.094 and 1.137 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively. Exposure to PM2.5 at the concentrations of 5, 50, and 200 μg/mL for 12 h and 24 h caused DNA damage of the human alveolar epithelium, and the ratios of the tailing and length of the tail were all significantly different from those of the negative control group (P<0.05), and indicated a dose-response relationship. Conclusion PM2.5 has certain genetic toxicity.
Cohort Studies on Cancer Mortality Among Workers Exposed Only to Chrysotile Asbestos:a Meta-analysis
2004, 17(4): 459-468.
To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All data meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile were incorporated into meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites were calculated using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effect model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. The dose-response effect as reflected in the percentage of all deaths due to mesothelioma served as a proxy measure of chrysotile exposure. Results A cohort of twenty six workers exposed to chrysotile alone was summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for all deaths (1.27), all cancers (1.28), cancers of respiratory organs (2.51), cancers of lung (2.35) and cancers of stomach (1.24) were observed. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for lung cancer within occupational strata were observed among textile workers (3.55), asbestos product manufacturers (3.30), miners and millers (2.24), cement product workers (1.22), and for stomach cancer among asbestos product manufacturers (1.49). Meta-SMRs for cancers at other sites were not significant. Meta-SMR for lung cancer showed an increasing trend with an elevated percentage of all deaths from mesothelioma, but no such trend for stomach cancer. Conclusion There are excessive risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone, and likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between chrysotile exposure and cancers at other sites.
Antimutagenicity of Propolis Against Some Mutagens in vivo and in vitro
2004, 17(4): 469-475.
To evaluate the antimutagenicity of propolis in vivo and in vitro. Methods Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used as a test model in vitro against a direct mutagen DMC and an indirect mutagen 2AF with or without S9 mix, and MN formation of mice bone marrow cell and CAs induction of mice testicle cell were applied as a test model in vivo against two mutagens CP and MMC. Results The present study clearly demonstrated that propolis could inhibit mutagenicity of both DMC and 2AF directly in a dose-dependent manner, and significant antimutagenic effects (P<0.05) were obtained in TA98 strain at 2000 and 3000 (g/plate. It also could inhibit mutagenicity of both DMC and 2AF to TA98 strain in a dose-dependent manner, with significant antimutagenic effects (P<0.05) appeared at 1000, 2000, and 3000 (g/plate. The results of antimutagenicity test in vivo revealed that propolis could inhibit MN formation significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 45.0 and 135.0 mg/kg b. w., and decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrants and chromosome aberrant cells significantly (P<0.05) only at the dose of 135.0 mg/kg b. w. Conclusion The propolis is a good inhibitor for mutagencity of DMC and 2AF in vitro, as well as for CP and MMC in vivo.
Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects
2004, 17(4): 476-491.
Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.
2004, 17(4): 492-498.
Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants[1]. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty[2]. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils[3]. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.