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Bone Injury and Fracture Healing Biology
Ahmad Oryan, Somayeh Monazzah, Amin Bigham-Sadegh
2015, 28(1): 57-71. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.006
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The Serum Exosome Derived MicroRNA-135a, -193b, and-384 Were Potential Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
YANG Ting Ting, LIU Chen Geng, GAO Shi Chao, ZHANG Yi, WANG Pei Chang
2018, 31(2): 87-96. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.011
Objective MicroRNAs (miRs) are attractive molecules to be considered as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to explore their potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD. Methods The expression levels of exosomal miR-135a, -193b, and-384 in the serum from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients were measured with a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) method. Results Both serum exosome miR-135a and miR-384 were up-regulated while miR-193b was down-regulated in serum of AD patients compared with that of normal controls. Exosome miR-384 was the best among the three miRs to discriminate AD, VaD, and PDD. Using the cut-off value could better interpret these laboratory test results than reference intervals in the AD diagnosis. ROC curve showed that the combination of miR-135a, -193b, and-384 was proved to be better than a particular one for early AD diagnosis. Conclusion Our results indicated that the exosomal miRs in the serum were not only potential biomarker of AD early diagnosis, but might also provide novel insights into the screen and prevention of the disease.
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Burden of Cirrhosis and Other Chronic Liver Diseases Caused by Specific Etiologies in China, 1990−2016: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
LI Man, WANG Zhuo Qun, ZHANG Lu, ZHENG Hao, LIU Dian Wu, ZHOU Mai Geng
2020, 33(1): 1-10. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.001
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
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Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation
SHU-MING DUAN, Xin-sheng Zhao, RUI-FU WEN, JING-JING HUANG, GUO-HUA PI, SU-XIANG ZHANG, JUN HAN, SHENG-LI BI, LI RUAN, XIAO-PING DONG, SARS RESEARCH TEAM
2003, 16(3): 246-255.
The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.
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Effects of Short-Term Forest Bathing on Human Health in a Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest in Zhejiang Province, China
MAO Gen Xiang, LAN Xiao Guang, CAO Yong Bao, CHEN Zhuo Mei, HE Zhi Hua, LV Yuan Dong, WANG Ya Zhen, HU Xi Lian, WANG Guo Fu, YAN Jing
2012, 25(3): 317-324. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.010
Objective To investigate the effects of short-term forest bathing on human health.Methods Twenty healthy male university students participated as subjects and were randomly divided into two groups of 10.One group was sent on a two-night trip to a broad-leaved evergreen forest,and the other was sent to a city area.Serum cytokine levels reflecting inflammatory and stress response,indicators reflecting oxidative stress,the distribution of leukocyte subsets,and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations were measured before and after the experiment to evaluate the positive health effects of forest environments.A profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation was used to assess changes in mood states.Results No significant differences in the baseline values of the indicators were observed between the two groups before the experiment.Subjects exposed to the forest environment showed reduced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory level,as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde,interleukin-6,and tumor necrosis factor α levels compared with the urban group.Serum cortisol levels were also lower than in the urban group.Notably,the concentration of plasma ET-1 was much lower in subjects exposed to the forest environment.The POMS evaluation showed that after exposure to the forest environment,subjects had lower scores in the negative subscales,and the score for vigor was increased.Conclusion Forest bathing is beneficial to human health,perhaps through preventive effects related to several pathological factors.
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Evaluating the Nutritional Status of Oncology Patientsand Its Association with Quality of Life
ZHANG Ya Hui, XIE Fang Yi, CHEN Ya Wen, WANG Hai Xia, TIAN Wen Xia, SUN Wen Guang, WU Jing
2018, 31(9): 637-644. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.088
Objective The primary aim of the study was to compare two nutritional status evaluation tools:the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002). Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the second aim was to provide constructive advice regarding the quality of life of patients with malignancy. Methods This study enrolled 312 oncology patients and assessed their nutritional status and quality of life using the PG-SGA, NRS-2002, and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results The data indicate that 6% of the cancer patients were well nourished. The SGA-A had a higher sensitivity (93.73%) but a poorer specificity (2.30%) than the NRS-2002 (69.30% and 25.00%, respectively) after comparison with albumin. There was a low negative correlation and a high similarity between the PG-SGA and NRS-2002 for evaluating nutritional status, and there was a significant difference in the median PG-SGA scores for each of the SGA classifications (P < 0.001). The SGA-C group showed the highest PG-SGA scores and lowest body mass index. The majority of the target population received 2 points for each item in our 11-item questionnaire from the EORTC QLQ-C30. Conclusion The data indicate that the PG-SGA is more useful and suitable for evaluating nutritional status than the NRS-2002. Additionally, early nutrition monitoring can prevent malnutrition and improve the quality of life of cancer patients.
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Metabolomic Profiling Differences among Asthma, COPD, and Healthy Subjects: A LC-MS-based Metabolomic Analysis
LIANG Ying, GAI Xiao Yan, CHANG Chun, ZHANG Xu, WANG Juan, LI Ting Ting
2019, 32(9): 659-672. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.085
Objective Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) feature different inflammatory and cellular profiles in the airways, indicating that the cellular metabolic pathways regulating these disorders are distinct. Methods We aimed to compare the serum metabolomic profiles among mild persistent asthmatic patients, individuals with stable COPD, and healthy subjects and to explore the potential metabolic biomarkers and pathways. The serum metabolomic profiles of 17 subjects with mild persistent asthma, 17 subjects with stable COPD, and 15 healthy subjects were determined by an untargeted metabolomic analysis utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A series of multivariate statistical analyses was subsequently used. Results Multivariate analysis indicated a distinct separation between the asthmatic patients and healthy controls in electrospray positive and negative ions modes, respectively. A total of 19 differential metabolites were identified. Similarly, a distinct separation between asthma and COPD subjects was detected in the two ions modes. A total of 16 differential metabolites were identified. Among the identified metabolites, the serum levels of hypoxanthine were markedly higher in asthmatic subjects compared with those in COPD or healthy subjects. Conclusions Patients with asthma present a unique serum metabolome, which can distinguish them from individuals with COPD and healthy subjects. Purine metabolism alteration may be distinct and involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
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Supplementation of Fermented Barley Extracts with Lactobacillus Plantarum dy-1 Inhibits Obesity via a UCP1-dependent Mechanism
XIAO Xiang, BAI Juan, LI Ming Song, ZHANG Jia Yan, SUN Xin Juan, DONG Ying
2019, 32(8): 578-591. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.076
Objective We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. Methods In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage:(a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). Results In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. Conclusion These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.
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Protein Requirements in Healthy Adults:A Meta-analysis of Nitrogen Balance Studies
LI Min, SUN Feng, PIAO Jian Hua, YANG Xiao Guang
2014, 27(8): 606-613. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.093
Objective The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies.
Methods A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared.
Results Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg·d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P<0.05).
Conclusion The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg·d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg·d) and 132.05 mg N/kg·d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg·d), respectively.
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Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells by Inhibiting Akt/mTOR and Activating p38-MAPK
GE Jiao, LIU Yan, LI Qiang, GUO Xia, GU Ling, MA Zhi Gui, ZHU Yi Ping
2013, 26(11): 902-911. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.019
Objective To explore the effects of resveratrol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells and potential molecular mechanisms.
Methods The anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol-induced, apoptosis and autophagy on T-ALL cells were detected by using MTT test, immunofluorescence, electronic microscope, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed for detecting changes of apoptosis-associated proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins and state of activation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and p38-MAPK.
Results Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-ALL cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via up regulating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and down regulating cyclin A and cyclin D1. Western blotting revealed that resveratrol significantly decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Bim, and Bad), and induced cleaved-caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. Significant increase in ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 was also detected. Furthermore, resveratrol induced significant dephosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, but enhanced specific phosphorylation of p38-MAPK which could be blocked by SB203580. When autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA, apoptosis in T-ALL cells induced by resveratrol was enhanced.
Conclusion Our findings have suggested that resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in T-ALL cells through inhibiting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. Autophagy might play a role as a self-defense mechanism in T-ALL cells treated by resveratrol. Therefore, the reasonable inhibition of autophagy in T-ALL cells may serve as a promising strategy for resveratrol induced apoptosis and can be used as adjuvant chemotherapy for T-ALL.
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Contents
2022, 35(6): 1-2.
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The Emergence, Epidemiology, and Etiology of Haff Disease
PEI Pei, LI Xiao Yan, LU Shuang Shuang, LIU Zhe, WANG Rui, LU Xuan Cheng, LU Kai
2019, 32(10): 769-778. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.096
Haff disease is a type of human rhabdomyolysis characterized by the sudden onset of unexplained muscular rigidity and an elevated serum creatine kinase level within 24 h after consuming cooked aquatic products. Here, we reviewed a previous study on Haff disease and summarized the clinical manifestations, epidemiological characteristics, and etiological data to confirm the incidence and global epidemiology of the disease and identify the most common seafood vectors. Future directions for Haff disease study will include further prospective etiological studies and the development of prevention and control strategies.
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Protective Effect of Angiotensin (1-7) on Silicotic Fibrosis in Rats
ZHANG Bo Nan, XU Hong, GAO Xue Min, ZHANG Gui Zhen, ZHANG Xin, YANG Fang
2019, 32(6): 419-426. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.057
Objective Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ. Methods HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type Ⅰ, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang Ⅱ in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type Ⅰ and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang Ⅱ in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Conclusion Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.
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Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
JIA Bing Bing, YANG Zhou Xin, MAO Gen Xiang, LYU Yuan Dong, WEN Xiao Lin, XU Wei Hong, LYU XIAO Ling
2016, 29(3): 212-218. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.026
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Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Their Associated Socioeconomic Factors in China: A Spatial Analysis of A National Representative Survey
WANG Wei, ZHANG Mei, XU Cheng Dong, YE Peng Peng, LIU Yun Ning, HUANG Zheng Jing, HU Cai Hong, ZHANG Xiao, ZHAO Zhen Ping, LI Chun, CHEN Xiao Rong, WANG Li Min, ZHOU Mai Geng
2021, 34(12): 937-951. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.130
  Objective  We aimed to investigate and interpret the associations between socioeconomic factors and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension at the provincial level in China.   Methods  A nationally and provincially representative sample of 179,059 adults from the China Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance study in 2015–2016 was used to estimate hypertension burden. The spatial Durbin error model was fitted to investigate socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension indicators.  Results  Overall, it was estimated that 29.20% of the participants were hypertensive nationwide, among whom, 34.32% were aware of their condition, 27.69% had received antihypertensive treatment, and 7.81% had controlled their condition. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) was associated with hypertension prevalence (coefficient: −2.95, 95% CI: −5.46, −0.45) and control (coefficient: 6.35, 95% CI: 1.36, 11.34) among adjacent provinces and was also associated with awareness (coefficient: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12, 4.74) and treatment (coefficient: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.14) in local province. Beds of internal medicine (coefficient: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.23) was associated with control in local province. Old dependency ratio (coefficient: −3.58, 95% CI: −5.35, −1.81) was associated with treatment among adjacent provinces and with control (coefficient: −1.69, 95% CI: −2.42, −0.96) in local province.  Conclusion  Hypertension indicators were not only directly influenced by socioeconomic factors of local area but also indirectly affected by characteristics of geographical neighbors. Population-level strategies should involve optimizing supportive socioeconomic environment by integrating clinical care and public health services to decrease hypertension burden.
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Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China
CHENG Jun, ZHANG Hui, ZHAO Yan Lin, WANG Li Xia, CHEN Ming Ting
2017, 30(5): 384-389. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.051
China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients.
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Inactivation of Poliovirus by Ozone and the Impact of Ozone on the Viral Genome
JIANG Han Ji, CHEN Na, SHEN Zhi Qiang, YIN Jing, QIU Zhi Gang, MIAO Jing, YANG Zhong Wei, SHI Dan Yang, WANG Hua Ran, WANG Xin Wei, LI Jun Wen, YANG Dong, JIN Min
2019, 32(5): 324-333. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.044
Objective To investigate the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV1). Methods We used cell culture, long-overlapping RT-PCR, and spot hybridization assays to verify and accurately locate the sites of action of ozone that cause PV1 inactivation. We also employed recombinant viral genome RNA infection models to confirm our observations. Results Our results indicated that ozone inactivated PV1 primarily by disrupting the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) of the PV1 genome. Further study revealed that ozone specifically damaged the 80-124 nucleotide (nt) region in the 5'-NCR. Recombinant viral genome RNA infection models confirmed that PV1 lacking this region was non-infectious. Conclusion In this study, we not only elucidated the mechanisms by which ozone induces PV1 inactivation but also determined that the 80-124 nt region in the 5'-NCR is targeted by ozone to achieve this inactivation.
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Exposure Effects of Terahertz Waves on Primary Neurons and Neuron-like Cells Under Nonthermal Conditions
TAN Sheng Zhi, TAN Peng Cheng, LUO Lan Qing, CHI Yun Liang, YANG Zi Long, ZHAO Xue Long, ZHAO Li, DONG Ji, ZHANG Jing, YAO Bin Wei, XU Xin Ping, TIAN Guang, CHEN Jian Kui, WANG Hui, PENG Rui Yun
2019, 32(10): 739-754. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.094
Objective This study aimed to explore the potential effects of terahertz (THz) waves on primary cultured neurons from 4 rat brain regions (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem) and 3 kinds of neuron-like cells (MN9D, PC12, and HT22 cells) under nonthermal conditions. Methods THz waves with an output power of 50 (0.16 THz) and 10 (0.17 THz) mW with exposure times of 6 and 60 min were used in this study. Analysis of temperature change, neurite growth, cell membrane roughness, micromorphology, neurotransmitters and synaptic-related proteins (SYN and PSD95) was used to evaluate the potential effects. Results Temperature increase caused by the THz wave was negligible. THz waves induced significant neurotransmitter changes in primary hippocampal, cerebellar, and brainstem neurons and in MN9D and PC12 cells. THz wave downregulated SYN expression in primary hippocampal neurons and downregulated PSD95 expression in primary cortical neurons. Conclusion Different types of cells responded differently after THz wave exposure, and primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and MN9D cells were relatively sensitive to the THz waves. The biological effects were positively correlated with the exposure time of the THz waves.
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TaqMan Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Detecting and Differentiating Japanese Encephalitis Virus
SHAO Nan, LI Fan, NIE Kai, FU Shi Hong, ZHANG Wei Jia, HE Ying, LEI Wen Wen, WANG Qian Ying, LIANG Guo Dong, CAO Yu Xi, WANG Huan Yu
2018, 31(3): 208-214. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.026
Objective To detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) rapidly and distinguish its genotypes, a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection system was developed. Methods By aligning the full-length sequences of JEV (G1-G5), six sets of highly specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved NS1, NS2, and M genes of JEV, which included one set for non-specific JEV detection and five sets for the detection of specific JEV genotypes. Twenty batches of mosquito samples were used to evaluate our quantitative PCR assay. Results With the specific assay, no other flavivirus were detected. The lower limits of detection of the system were 1 pfu/mL for JEV titers and 100 RNA copies/μL. The coefficients of variation of this real-time RT-PCR were all < 2.8%. The amplification efficiency of this method was between 90% and 103%. Conclusion A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection system was successfully established to detect and differentiate all five JEV genotypes.
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Trends in Lipids Level and Dyslipidemia among Chinese Adults, 2002-2015
SONG Peng Kun, MAN Qing Qing, LI Hong, PANG Shao Jie, JIA Shan Shan, LI Yu Qian, HE Li, ZHAO Wen Hua, ZHANG Jian
2019, 32(8): 559-570. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.074
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
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