2014 Vol. 27, No. 8

Original Articles
Secular Changes of Stature in Rural Children and Adolescents in China, 1985-2010
CHEN Tian Jiao, JI Cheng Ye
2014, 27(8): 573-581. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.090
Objective To analyze and assess secular change in stature in rural children and adolescents in China from 1985 to 2010.
Methods Data were obtained from the 6 rounds of the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health. The subjects enrolled in the study were children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in rural areas of provincial capitals.
Results An overall positive secular trend in stature occurred in rural areas of provincial capitals in China from 1985 to 2010. The overall average increase rates were 3.1 and 2.4 cm/decade for boys and girls, respectively. The total body height increases for grown up boys and girls were 3.6 and 2.3 cm and the increase rates were 1.4 and 0.9 cm/decade, respectively. There were differences in body height increase among eastern, central and western regions. The average body height of the children or adolescents in eastern region was highest, followed by central region and western region. The overall increase rates in central region were highest among the three regions. The difference between eastern/central region and western region was obvious.
Conclusion Positive secular trend in stature of children or adolescents has occurred in rural area of China, and rural boys and girls showed a great potential for continuous growth. More attention should be paid to the differences in children’s body height between western region and eastern/central region.
An Objective Measure to Evaluate Actual Body Shape among Children and Adolescents in China
FU Lian Guo, WANG Hai Jun, LI Xiao Hui, WANG Zhi Qiang, Patrick WC Lau, YANG Yi De, MENG Xiang Kun, MA Jun
2014, 27(8): 582-593. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.033
Objective The purpose of this study was to explore an objective measure to assess actual body shape of children and adolescents in China.
Methods Based on the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) in 2005, 210 927 children and adolescents' (7-18 years) body height, body weight, chest circumference, sitting height, chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height ratio, chest circumference-low limb ratio, and sitting height-low limb ratio measurements were used to develop an objective measure by using transformation variables and explored factor analysis (EFA). Discrimination power of the objective measure was evaluated based on BMI reference and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC).
Results The objective measure included four dimensions scores:transverse dimension (TD) indicating weight and chest circumference; length dimension (LD) indicating height and sitting height;transverse-length ratio dimension (TLD) indicating chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height and chest circumference-low limb ratio; proportion dimension (PD) indicating sitting height-low limb ratio. The whole dimension (WD) indicating the whole body shape was showed by the average of four dimensions scores. Four dimensions and WD scores were approximately 80 in children and adolescents with normal weight, and higher than those of overweight, obesity, and underweight (all P-values<0.001). Areas under ROC of overweight and obesity compared with normal weight ranged from 0.88 to 1.00 for scores of TD, TLD, and WD.
Conclusion The objective measure which included four dimensions was explored, and TD, TLD, and WD had significant discrimination power.
Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese
DENG Xin Ru, ZHANG Yin Fei, WANG Tian Ge, XU Bai Hui, SUN Ji Chao, ZHAO Lie Bin, XU Min, CHEN Yu Hong, WANG Wei Qing, BI Yu Fang, LU Jie Li
2014, 27(8): 594-600. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.091
Objective To study the relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV in Chinese subjects.
Methods The relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV was studied in 9 615 subjects. The mean value of left and right BaPWV was analyzed. BaPWV was defined as high when it was31 752.5 cm/s (the upper quartile) either side.
Results The BaPWV and its elevated percentage progressively increased across the quartiles of the serum calcium level (P<0.05). The prevalence of elevated BaPWV was significantly higher in subjects of the second, third and highest quartiles than in those of the lowest quartile (26.9%, 28.4%, and 33.2%vs 23.7%, P=0.0116, P=0.0004, and P<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of elevated BaPWV was 1.32- fold higher in subjects of the highest quartile than in those of the lowest quartile (OR=1.32, 95%CI:1.08-1.60).
Conclusion The elevated serum calcium level is related to an elevated BaPWV and a higher risk of arterial stiffness, independent of conventional risk factors, in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.
Elevated Resting Heart Rate is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese
SUN Ji Chao, HUANG Xiao Lin, DENG Xin Ru, LV Xiao Fei, LU Jie Li, CHEN Yu Hong, BI Yu Fang, WANG Wei Qing, XU Min, NING Guang
2014, 27(8): 601-605. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.092
Objective To study the relationship between resting heart rate and blood lipid level.
Methods A total of 9 415 subjects aged≥40 years were included in the present study. Their resting heart rate was monitored and their serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured to define dyslipidemia according to the 2007 Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults.
Results The subjects were divided into group A with their resting heart rate<70 beats/min, group B with their resting heart rate=70-79 beats/min, group C with their resting heart rate=80-89 beats/min, and group D with their resting heart rate≥90 beats/min. High TG, TC, and LDL-C were presented across the resting heart rate (Ptrend<0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of high TG and TC was higher in subjects with their resting heart rate≥90 beats/min than in those with their resting heart rate<70 beats/min (OR=1.42;95%CI:1.16-1.74 and OR=1.33;95%CI:1.09-1.64, respectively).
Conclusion Elevated resting heart rate is associated with high TG and TC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.
Protein Requirements in Healthy Adults:A Meta-analysis of Nitrogen Balance Studies
LI Min, SUN Feng, PIAO Jian Hua, YANG Xiao Guang
2014, 27(8): 606-613. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.093
Objective The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies.
Methods A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared.
Results Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg·d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P<0.05).
Conclusion The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg·d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg·d) and 132.05 mg N/kg·d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg·d), respectively.
Malnutrition Prevalence in Lasa Xizang Children and Adolescents
YIN Xiao Jian, JI Cheng Ye
2014, 27(8): 614-626. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.094
Objective To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among children and adolescents in Xizang (Tibet).
Methods We analyzed data from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 pertaining to Tibetan children and adolescents in Lase (Lhasa), aged 7-18 years old. Numbers of survey subjects for these years were:2 393, 2 754, 2 397, and 2 643, respectively.
Results Our results indicated that the rate of occurrence of stunting in Tibet has evidenced a gradual decline:for boys, from 26.8%in 2000 to 9.3%in 2010;and for girls, from 25.8%in 2000 to 10.8%in 2010. In general, the wasting rate for both boys and girls in Tibet has gradually decreased over time:for boys, from 17.7%in 1995 to 4.6%in 2005;and for girls from 12.5%in 1995 to 2.3%in 2005. The stunting rates of boys aged 7-13 years old and of girls aged 7-11 years old were 67.5%and 53.1%, respectively, while these rates for boys aged 14-18 years old and girls aged 12-18 years old were 32.5%and 46.9%, respectively.
Conclusion Stunting and wasting rates of Tibetan children and adolescents indicate a gradual declining trend over time. The stunting rates of both boys and girls during early puberty were significantly higher than those during late puberty.
Policy Forum
Factors Influencing the Number of Rabies Cases in Children in China
SONG Miao, TANG Qing, Rayner Simon, TAO Xiao Yan, SHEN Xin Xin, LIANG Guo Dong
2014, 27(8): 627-632. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.095
Letters to the Editor
Association of Bisphenol A Exposure with Circulating Sex Hormone Concentrations in Men and Postmenopausal Women
LI Mian, WANG Tian Ge, XU Yu, ZHANG Jie, XU Bai Hui, XU Min, CHEN Yu Hong, LU Jie Li, Bi Yu Fang, WANG Wei Qing, GU Yan Yun, NING Guang
2014, 27(8): 633-636. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.096
Influence of Soy Isoflavone on Lindane Cumulant in Sprague-Dawley Rats
YANG Yang, ZHANG Yun Bo, SHENG Wei, FU Zheng Hai, WANG Zhe, WANG Xiao, GUAN Si Yuan, NA Xiao Lin
2014, 27(8): 637-640. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.097
An Evaluation of Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Melamine in Combination with Cyanuric Acid at Three Mass Ratios
LIU Xin, HUANG Da Wei, WU Ke Jia, WU Yong Ning, JIA Xi Wu, GONG Zhi Yong
2014, 27(8): 641-645. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.098
Bacterial Communities Associated with An Occurrence of Colored Water in An Urban Drinking Water Distribution System
WU Hui Ting, MI Zi Long, ZHANG Jing Xu, CHEN Chao, XIE Shu Guang
2014, 27(8): 646-650. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.099
Research Highlight
Ebola Virus Disease:General Characteristics, Thoughts, and Perspectives
CHENG Ying, LI Yu, YU Hong Jie
2014, 27(8): 651-653. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.100