Objective To study the correlation of toxicity with biodegradability (BODT) in order to promote QSBR development and understand the degradation mechanism. Methods Toxicity of substituted phenols to river bacteria was determined by the turbidities that were measured using a spectrophotometer (UV-190) at 530 nm against a blank control. The biodegradability of substituted phenols was expressed as BODT and the DO concentrations were determined by the iodometric titration method. Results The BODT and toxicity(log 1/IC50) of 12 substituted phenols to bacteria from the Songhua River were determined respectively. The correlation of biodegradability with toxicity was developed: BODT=8.21 (±2.22) pKa -32.44 (±8.28) log 1/IC50 +89.04 (±38.20), n=12, R2=0.791, R2(adj)=0.745, SE=9.134, F=17.066, P=0.001. Conclusion The BODT of substituted phenols was influenced by their toxicity and the ionization constant pKa. The stronger the toxicity, the less readily the compound was degraded by river bacteria.
Objective To study the role of cyclinD1 and CDK4 in malignant transformation of human fetal lung diploid fibroblast cell line(2BS) induced by silica. Methods Recombination vectors with sense and antisense pXJ41-cyclinD1 and pXJ41-CDK4 were constructed, and then transfected into the malignant transformed cells induced by silica, respectively. At the same time, pXJ41-neo was used as the control. Results During the progress of the malignant transformation of 2BS cells induced by silica, cyclinD1 and CDK4 were overexpressed. Antisense RNA suppressed cyclinD1 and CDK4 gene expression in the antisense pXJ41-cyclinD1 and pXJ41-CDK4 transfected cells. Antisense RNA led to cell cycle arrest, resulting in lengthened G1 phase (the percentages of cells in the G1 phase changed from 45.1% to 52.7% and 58.0% for cyclinD1 and CDK4 transfected cells, respectively), and eventually attenuated the increase of the proliferation of malignant transformed cells induced by silica. Compared with malignant transformed cells induced by silica, cells transfected with antisense pXJ41-cyclinD1 and pXJ41-CDK4 showed obviously reduced growth rates. On the 8th day, the suppression rates were 58.69 and 77.43% (the growth rate of malignant transformed cells induced by silica was 100%), doubling time changed from 21.0 h to 31.4 h and 21.0 h to 42.7 h, respectively, the growth capacities on soft agar of cells transfected by antisense pXJ41-cyclinD1 and pXJ41-CDK4 decreased obviously. Conclusion CyclinD1 and CDK4 play an important role in maintaining transformed phenotype of the cancer cells.
Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activities of different chemical constituents from Astragalus mongholicus Bunge and their protection against xanthine (XA)/xanthine oxidase (XO)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Methods The compounds of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge were isolated by chromatography and the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data interpretation. Their antioxidant activities were detected by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities in a cell-free system. Meanwhile, the effects against XA/XO-induced toxicity were assessed using MTT assay in PC12 cells. Results Ten principal constituents were isolated and identified as formononetin (I), ononin (II), calycosin (III), calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (IV), 9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucoside (V), adenosine (VI), pinitol (VII), daucosterol (VIII), β-sitoster (IX) and saccharose (X) from Astragalus mongholicus Bunge. The compounds I, III, and IV scavenged DPPH free radicals in vitro. Formononetin and calycosin were found to inhibit XA/XO-induced cell injury significantly, with an estimated EC50 of 50 ng/mL. Conclusion Compound Ⅱ, Ⅵ, and Ⅶ are first reported in this plant. Calycosin exhibits the most potent antioxidant activity both in the cell-free system and in the cell system.
Objective To screen the over differentially expressed genes in carcinoma induced by BPDE-transformed 16HBE cells (16HBE-C cells). Methods The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was performed to profile differentially expressed genes between 16HBE-C cells and 16HBE cells. The cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes were inserted into TA cloning vector and transformed competent E. coli strain. Positive clones were randomly picked up and identified by the colony PCR method. Dot blot was used to test the same source with the tester. The differentially expressed cDNA fragments were sequenced and compared with known genes and EST database in Genbank. Results Eight known genes were over-expressed in 16HBE-C cells including eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, HIF-1 responsive RTP801, ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S29 (RPS29), mitochondrion related genes, and laminin receptor 1. Three differentially expressed cDNA fragments could not be matched to the known genes but to the EST database. Conclusion The SSH method can detect differentially expressed genes between 16HBE-C and 16HBE cells. BPDE-induced carcinogenesis may be related to alteration of at least eight known genes and three unknown genes. These expression data provide a clue to further cloning novel genes and studying functions in BPDE-induced carcinoma.
Objective To study the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals in cow milk on female reproductive system. Methods A two-generation reproduction was conducted according to U. S. FDA standard. Milk was fed in special bottle to Wistar rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1) in the milk group while artificial milk was fed to rats in the control group. Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. Measurements were made according to this guideline. Results Reproductive parameters in the milk group such as fertility index, gestation index, weights of uterus and ovary, days of vaginal opening, estrous cycles, histological morphological changes were comparable to those in the control group. However, the means of body weight had some differences. The body weight gains increased significantly in the milk-treated group in F1 and F2 generation compared with those in the control group. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in blood in the milk group was comparable to that in the control group, but the standard deviation changed greatly in the milk-treated rats. Conclusion Endocrine disruptor chemicals in milk have no severe effects on the female reproductive system.
Objective To investigate the effect of ?-zearalenol on angiotensin II-induced β3 integrin mRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods The mRNA level in integrin β3 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Endothelial NF-(B activity was determined by the luciferase activity assay of plasmid NF-(B-LUC. Results The angiotensin II- induced β3 integrin mRNA expression was inhibited by α-zearalenol and 17β-estradiol (10 nmol/L -1 (mol/L), but not influenced by ICI 182, 780, a pure competitive antagonist for estrogen receptor or a nitric oxide inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Alpha-zearalenol and 17β-estradiol suppressed the angiotensin II-induced activation of NF-κB in endothelial cells. Conclusion Alpha-zearalenol inhibits angiotensin II-induced integrin β3 mRNA expression by suppressing NF-κB activation in endothelial cells.
Objective To produce the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) and to develop immunoassay based on mAbs for biosafety assessment of HPT in genetically modified rice (GM rice). Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant 6His. HPT protein, and the conventional hybridoma technology was used to generate the monoclonal hybridoma cells. ELISA and Western blot were used to analyze the specificity of mAbs recognizing HPT and the cross reaction with other proteins. A double-Ab sandwich ELISA method was established to detect HPT expression level in the sck gene-modified rice plants. Results Four hybridomas, named F1, D4-2, D4-4, and D4-5, producing the mAbs against HPT were successfully obtained with the titer of ascetic mAbs ranging from 1×10-4 to 1×10-5. Identification of subclass showed that all the produced mAbs belonged to IgG1. Western blot showed specific binding reaction between the mAbs to the HPT proteins expressed in the GM rice. A double sandwich ELISA coated with anti-HPT polyclonal antibody was established with mAbs as sandwich antibody, which showed a sensitivity of 30ng/mL and did not crossreact with other proteins. The expression level of HPT in the leaves of sck-transformed lines was detected (80-150ng/mL). But HPT protein in the grain and seed of GM rice could not be detected using this ELISA assay. Conclusion Anti-HPT mAbs prepared herein have a high specificity and can be used for rapid assay of HPT antigen. The expression level of HPT in the GM rice grain and seed is lower than our ELISA detection limit.
Objective To explore the possibilities of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) to adopt Schwann cell phenotype in vitro and in vivo in SD rats. Methods MSCs were obtained from tibia and femur bone marrow and cultured in culture flasks.Beta-mercaptoethanol followed by retinoic acid, forskolin, basic-FGF, PDGF and heregulin were added to induce differentiation of MSCs'. Schwann cell markers, p75, S-100 and GFAP were used to discriminate induced properties of MSCs' by immunofluorescent staining. PKH-67-1abelled MSCs were transplanted into the mechanically injured rat sciatic nerve, and laser confocal microscopy was performed to localize the PKH67 labelled MSCs in the injured sciatic nerve two weeks after the operation. Fluorescence PKH67 attenuation rule was evaluated by flow cytometry in vitro. Results MSCs changed morphologically into cells resembling primary cultured Schwann cells after their induction in vitro. In vivo, a large number of MSCs were cumulated within the layer of epineurium around the injured nerve and expressed Schwann cell markers, p75,S-100, and GFAP. Conclusion MSCs are able to support nerve fiber regeneration and re-myelination by taking on Schwann cell function, and can be potentially used as possible substitutable cells for artificial nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration.
Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.
Objective To compare the protein difference between B. henselae Houston and B. henselae Marseille by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Method Protein samples were prepared by vorterx, ultrasonic treatment, and centrifugation. Protein concentrations were determined by Bradford method. Protein difference was compared by the first IEF and the second SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Protein concentrations in samples of Bartonella henselae Houston and Bartonella henselae Marseille were 2.117 μg/μL and 2.200 μg/μL respectively. Sample protein of 40 μg for IPG strips loading was perfect. The results of 2-DE in pH 4 to 7 IPG strips showed that the total protein spots of Bartonella henselae Houston and Bartonella henselae Marseille were 375 and 379 respectively, 95% of the spots were the same between the two strains of Bartonella henselae. Conclusion The procedure of 2-DE may prove successful for the proteomic analysis of Bartonella henselae. Bartonella henselae Houston and Bartonella henselae Marseille are different genotypes.
Objective To establish the model of indoor air pollution forecast for decoration. Methods The model was based on the balance model for diffusing mass. Results The data between testing concentration and estimating concentration were compared. The maximal error was less than 30% and average error was 14.6%. Conclusion The model can easily predict whether the pollution for decoration exceeds the standard and how long the room is decorated.
The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.
There are currently two commonly used approaches to assessing economic impacts of health damage resulting from environmental pollution: human capital approach (HCA) and willingness-to-pay (WTP). WTP can be further divided into averted expenditure approach (AEA), hedonic wage approach (HWA), contingent valuation approach (CVA) and hedonic price approach (HPA). A general review of the principles behind these approaches by the authors indicates that these methods are incapable of unveiling the mechanism of health impact from the point of view of national economy. On a basis of economic system, the shocks brought about by health effects of environmental pollution change the labor supply and medical expenditure, which in turn affects the level of production activity in each sector and the total final consumption pattern of the society. The general equilibrium approach within the framework of macroeconomic theory is able to estimate the health impact on national economy comprehensively and objectively. Its mechanism and applicability are discussed in detail by the authors.