2010 Vol. 23, No. 2
Effect of In-home Fortification of Complementary Feeding on Intellectual Development of Chinese Children
2010, 23(2): 83-91.
Objective To explore the effect of in-home fortification of complementary feeding on intellectual development of Chinese children aged below 24 months. Methods One thousand and four hundred seventy eight children aged 4-12 months were recruited and divided into study groups (formula 1 group and formula 2 group) and control group. In two study groups, in addition to the usual complementary food, children were fed with a sachet of fortified food supplement each day. Protein and micronutrients were provided in formula 1 group. Formula 2 group had the same energy intake as the formula 1 group. In addition to measurement of physical growth and detection of hemoglobin level, Development Quotient (DQ) or Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was assessed. Results The DQ of children aged below 24 months was 97.2, 95.5, and 93.8 in formula 1 group, formula 2 group and control group, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05), The DQ of children in formula 1 group, formula 2 group, and control group was 92.7, 90.4, and 88.3 respectively in the first follow up showing statistically significant differences (P<0.05). And, DQ of children in formula 1 group, formula 2 group and control group were 96.7, 94.5, and 93.7 respectively in the second follow up, showing statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Full-IQ of children in the formula 1 group was 3.1 and 4.5 points higher than that in formula 2 group and in control group respectively. Verbal IQ of children in the formula 1 group was 2.1 and 5 points higher than that in formula 2 group and control group respectively. Performance IQ was 2.5 and 3.1 points higher than that in formula 2 group and control group respectively. All above mentioned comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusion Fortification of complementary feeding showed persistent effect on intelligence development of young children which could persist to 6 years of age. The critical time for correction of anemia could be under 18 months.
Relationship of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese Adult
2010, 23(2): 92-101.
Objective To compare the relative risk of waist circumference (WC) and/or BMI on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional data of 41 087 adults (19 567 male and 21 520 female) from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were examined. According to the obesity definition of WGOC (BMI, 24 kg/m2 and 28 kg/m2; WC, male 85 cm and 95 cm for male, 80 cm and 90 cm for female), the study population were divided into 9 groups. The prevalence and odds ratio (Ors) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose and dyslipidemia) were compared among these 9 groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses were used to compare the likelihood of BMI and/or WC on CVD risk factors. Results Both the indexes levels and the odds ratios of CVD risk factors were significantly increased (decreased for HDL-C levels) along with the increase of WC and/or BMI, even when the effect of age, sex, income, education, sedentary activity and dietary factors were adjusted. The variances (R2) in CVD risk factors explained by WC only and BMI only were quite similar, but a little bit larger when WC and BMI were combined. The standard β was higher of BMI when predicting systolic BP and was higher of WC when predicting TG, TC and HDL. Conclusions BMI and WC had independent effects on CVD risk factors and combination of BMI and WC would be more predictive. Findings from the present study provided substantive evidence for the WGOC recommendation of a combined use of BMI and WC classifications.
2010, 23(2): 102-107.
Objective To explore the metabolic syndrome and its association with arterial compliance in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods 337 participants aged 6 to 18 years with males accounted for 55.8% were grouped according to their traits of metablic syndrome. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and serum lipid profile were measured. Homeostasis model was assessed and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was measured and calculated for estimating individual insulin resistance. Arterial compliance was also measured using digital pulse wave analyzing method (Micro medical, London), and stiffness index was calculated. Results The stiffness index in participants with metablic syndrome was significant higher than that in participants with no riskof metablic syndrome [(7.69±1.63) vs (6.25±0.86) m/s, P<0.01] and stiffness index and HOMA-IR were progressively increased with the increase of traits of metablic syndrom (P for linear trend <0.001). After gender, age, and pubertal development were adjusted, both traits of metablic syndrome and HOMA-IR were correlated positively with stiffness index (both P<0.05). Conclusion The clustering of metablic syndrome was closely associated with risk at increased arterial stiffness in Chinese children and adolescents. It was suggested that arterial compliance assessment of children and adolescents might be an important measure for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Relationships between Weight Status and Bullying Victimization among School-aged Adolescents in Guangdong Province of China
2010, 23(2): 108-112.
Objective To examine relationships between weight status and different forms of bullying victimization among adolescents aged 11-18 years. Methods The relationships between weight status and bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational) were examined utilizing data from the Guangdong Provincial Youth Health Behavior Survey. Data on height, weight, and victimization behaviors were collected by self-reporting from 12 439 subjects. X2 test and logistic regression were used to analyze relationships between weight and bullying victimization. Results The incidence of victimization for adolescents aged 11-18 years was 8.6%, with higher rates for boys (12.4%) than for girls (4.7%). For children with normal, overweight and obese body mass index (BMI), the incidence rates of victimization were 8.2%, 17.3%, and 11.5%, respectively. Compared to normal weight, overweight was a risk factor for bullying victimization(OR=l.60, 95% O:1.18-2.17), and it also increased children's risk of being teased in a hurtful way (OR=2.13, 95% CI: 1.41-3.24) and being made fun of due to physical appearance (OR=3.58, 95% CI: 2.27-5.67). Obesity only increased the risk for children of being made fun of due to physical appearance (OR=2.45, 95% CI: 1.44-4.15). Conclusions The victimization for children at school is common in Guangdong province, China. Overweight and obese children are more likely to be victims of bullying behaviors, especially verbal victimization.
Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Markers of Metabolic Nuclear Receptors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with/without Hypertension
2010, 23(2): 113-120.
Objective To explore Effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) on markers of metablic nuclear receptors, i.e peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPARs), liver X receptor (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptor (FXRs) in type 2 diabetic patients with/without hypertension. Method Study population consisted of 200 type 2 diabetic patients with/without hypertension and 50 healthy subjects, all of whom were randomly assigned to MCPs-treated diabetics (n=50), placebo-treated diabetics (n=50), MCPs-treated diabetics with hypertension (n=50), placebo-treated diabetics with hypertension (n=50), and healthy controls (n=50). MCPs or placebo (water-soluble starch) were given daily before breakfast and bedtime over three months. Levels of free fatty acid, cytochrome P450, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, bradykinin, NO, and Prostacyclin were determined before intervention, and 1.5 months, and 3 months after intervention. Hypoglycemia and the endpoint events during the study were recorded and compared among the study groups. Result At the end of the study period, MCPs-treated patients showed marked improvement compared with patients receiving placebo. The protection exerted by MCPs seemed more profound in diabetics than in diabetics with hypertension. In particular, after MCPs intervention, levels of free fatty acid, hs-CRP, resistin, Prostacyclin decreased significantly in diabetics and tended to decrease in diabetic and hypertensive patients whereas levels of cytochrome P450, leptin, NO tended to decrease in diabetics with/without hypertension. Meanwhile, levels of adiponectin and bradykinin rose markedly in diabetics following MCPs administration. Conclusion MCPs could ofer protection against diabetes and hypertension by affecting levels of molecules involved in diabetic and hypertensive pathogenesis. Regulation on metabolic nuclear receptors by MCPs may be the possible underlying mechanism for its observed effects in the study. Further study into its action may shed light on development of new drugs based on bioactive peptides from marine sources.
2010, 23(2): 121-129.
Objectives The purposes were to determine the relationship between silicosis among foundry workers and their cumulative exposure to silica dust, and to establish a regression model to predict the risk for developing silicosis by a given length of employment and air concentrations of silica at worksites. Methods A 29-year cohort study was conducted, including all those employed for more than one year during January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1996 and all members of the cohort were followed-up to December 31, 2008. In total, 2 009 workers of an automobile foundry in Shiyan, Hubei province were recruited in the study, 1 300 at eight worksites including sand preparation, cast shakeout, and finishing, melting, moulding, core-making, overhead crane operation and pouring as exposed group, and the other 709 auxiliary workers at the same factory, such as electricians, inspectors, fitters, and so on, as control group. Person-years of observation were calculated by persons observed and years followed-up for each of them. Person-year incidence of silicosis and its relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) among the workers were estimated, adjusted for relevant factors with logistic regression model using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results Totally, 2 009 workers were followed-up for 37 151 person-years and 48 cases of silicosis were found, with an overall incidence of 1.34 per thousand, 2.02 per thousand in exposed group, and 0.15 per thousand in control one. Risk of silicosis was significantly higher in the exposed group than that in the control one (RR=13.13, 95% CI 3.18-54.13), higher in men than that in women (RR=13.92, 95% CI 1.92-100.93). Risks of silicosis varied by job, highest in those exposed to cast shakeout and finishing (RR=28.14, 95% CI 6.43-123.11), followed by those exposed to pouring (RR=22.23, 95% CI 5.01-98.55) in the foundry. Average length of employment at onset of silicosis was 25.94 years, and silicosis incidence increased with length of employment. Average age at onset of silicosis was 47.83 years old. The risk of silicosis in workers with pulmonary tuberculosis was 2.57 folds as those without it (P<0.01). Ten deaths were recorded in those with silicosis, with a case-fatality rate of 20.83 percent three of them died of lung cancer, three of liver cancer, two of ischemic heart disease, and two of other diseases as their immediate causes of death. Incidence of silicosis in foundry workers positively correlated with their currulative silica exposure (OR=3.00, 95% CI 2.34-3.83). Risks of silicosis increased by 4.38 folds with an increase of 1 mg/m3-year of cumulative silica exposure, and by 3.79 folds with smoking, respectively, adjusted for alcohol drinking and age. Based on a logistic regression model fitted, incidence of silicosis is expected to be 44.6 per thousand for those with daily exposure to silica of 4.18 mg/m3 in average for 30 years, and if incidence of silicosis is expected to be less than 1 per thousand, daily exposure to silica should be controlled below 0.2 mg/m3 for those with 20 years of employment, or below 0.1 mg/m3 for those with 30 or 40 years of silica exposure. Conclusions At present, foundry workers in China still face high risk of developing silicosis. For lowering occurrence of silicosis in exposed workers, it seems necessary that current occupational exposure limits for silica at worksites in China should be reexamined and silica dust control measures be strengthend.
Relatively High Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Adolescent Dancers Despite Lower Energy Intake and Menstrual Disorder
2010, 23(2): 130-136.
Objective The effect of dietary restriction, intense exercise end menstrual dysfunction on bone mineral density remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the skeletal health status and relationship between bone mineral density end nutrient intake, menstrual status, estrogen level and other factos in Chinese adolescent dancers. Methods Sixty dancers and 77 healthy controls underwent measurements of bone density, body composition, and estrogen level. Nutrient intake, menstrual status and physical activity were assessed with questionnaires. The correlation between these factors were analyzed. Results The dancers under study had a significantly lean body mass index (18.3±1.4 kg/m2 vs. 21.7±3.1 kg/m2), lower percentage of body fat (0.25±0.05 vs. 0.34±0.04) end later age at menarche (14.0±0.9 y vs.13.0±1.3 y), and the estrogen level, daily calorie and fat intake in them were also lower than in the controls. All the dancers undertook intensive physical activity every day and up to 69% of them suffered from irregular menarche. Yet they had relatively high BMD and BMC of the total body and legs than the controls after adjusting for BMI end age. Site-specific BMD was positively correlated to BMI, body composition and training hours per week and negatively correlated to the age at menarche and menstrual frequency. Coneluslons The relatively high BMD and BMC of the dancers at the total body end legs were probably caused by high levels of weight-bearing physical activity. To ameliorate disordered eating, especially low energy intake might be helpful to prevent the Triad and to improve the bone health in adolescent dancers.
Association of TNF-a-238G/A and 308 G/A Gene Polymorphisms with Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Patients with Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis
2010, 23(2): 137-145.
Objectives Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play an important role in host's immune response to mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) infection. This study was to investigate the association of TNF-α gene polymorphism with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients with coal worker's pneumoconiusis (CWP). Methods A case-control study was conducted in 113 patients with confirmed CWP complicated with pulmonary TB and 113 non-TB controls with CWP. They were matched in gender, age, job, and stage of pneumoconiosis. All participants were interviewed with questionnaires and their blood specimens were collected for genetic determination with informed consent. The TNF-α gene polymorphism was determined with polymerase chain reaction of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Frequency of genotypos was assessed for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability. Factors influencing the association of individual susceptibility with pulmonary TB were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Gene-environment interaction was evaluated by a multiplicative model with combined OR. All data were analyzed using SAS version 8.2 software. Results No significant difference in frequency of the TNF-α-308 genotype was found between CWP complicated with pulmonary TB and non-TB controls (2,2=5.44,P=0.07). But difference in frequency of the TNF-α-308 A allele was identified between them (X2=5.14, P=0.02). No significant difference in frequencies of the TNF-α-238 genotype and allele (P=0.23 and P=0.09, respectively) was found between cases and controls either, with combined (GG and AA) OR of 3.96 (95% confidence interval of 1.30～12.09) at the -308 locus of the TNF-α gene, as compared to combination of the TNF-α-238 GG and TNF-α-308 GG genotypes. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of the TNF-α-238 GG and TNF-α-308 GA genotypos was 1.98 (95% CI of 1.06～3.71) for risk for pulmonary TB in patients with CWP. There was a synergic interaction between the TNF-α-308 GG genotype and body mass index (OR=4.92), as well as an interaction between the TNF-α-308 GG genotype and history of BCG immunization or history of TB exposure. And, the interaction of the TNF-α-238 GG genotype and history of BCG immunization or TB exposure with risk for pulmonary TB in them was also indicated. Conclusions TNF-α-308 A allele is associated with an elevated risk for pulmnonary TB, whereas TNF-α-238 A allele was otherwise.
A New Duplex Reverse Transcription PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Giardia duodenalis Cysts
2010, 23(2): 146-150.
Objective To simultaneously detect viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts for the purpose of reducing time and cost spent. Methods A duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was newly developed. Results Using duplex RT-PCR method for the hsp70 gene, viable (oo)cyst concentrations of 101 and 103 (oo)cysts/100 μL could be detected for C. Parvum and G duodenalis, respectively. However, after heat-shock stimulation the expression of hsp70 mRNAs was detectable at 100 and 101 (oo)cysts/100 μL concentrations of C parvum and G duodenalis, respectively. Thus, the detection sensitivity was significantly increased when the viable (oo)cysts were exposed to heat shock. Conclusion This study describes a new duplex RT-PCR method for hsp70 gene to detect the viable (oo)cysts of the C. Parvum and G duodenalis with less time consumed and at a lower cost. This newly developed duplex RT-PCR method may be used to detect these parasites not only in aquatic environments but also in clinical samples.
Alterative Expression and Sequence of Human Elongation Factor-15 during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induced by Cadmium Chloride
2010, 23(2): 151-157.
Objective To study the alternative expression and sequence of human elongation factor-1δ(human EF-1δ p31) during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cadmium chloride (CdCI2) and its possible mechanism. Methods Total RNA was isolated at different stages of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) induced by CdCI<.2> at a concentration of 5.0 μM. Special primers and probe for human EF-1δ p31 were designed and expression of human EF-1δ mRNA from different cell lines was detected with fluorescent quantitative PCR technique. EF-1δ cDNA from different cell lines was purified and cloned into pMD 18-T vector followed by confirming and sequencing analysis. Results The expressions of human EF-1δ p31 at different stages of 16HBE cells transformed by CdCl<.2> was elevated (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with their corresponding non-transformed cells, the overexpression level of EF-18 p31 was averagely increased 2.9 folds in Cd-pretransformed cells, 4.3 folds in Cd-transformed cells and 7.2 folds in Cd-tumorigenic cells. No change was found in the sequence of overexpressed EF-1δ p31 at different stages of 16HBE cells transformed by CdCl<.2>. Conclusion Overexpression of human EF-1δ p31 is positively correlated with malignant transformation of 16HBE cells induced by CdCl<.2>, but is not correlated with DNA mutations.
2010, 23(2): 158-160.
Objective To investigate epidemiological, clinical and genetic features of the first Chinese case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with mutation of E200K in PRNP. Methods The general epidemiological and clinical data were collected; CSF 14-3-3 protein was analyzedby Western blot; The PRNP was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Results A missense mutation in codon 200 (E200K) of the PRNP was identified in this patient; CSF 14-3-3 protein was positive; sleep disturbance was the initial sign and the other symptoms gradually appeared, including memory loss, dizziness and ataxia. Conclusion The CJD patient who was first reported in China has a missense mutation in codon 200 (E200K) of the PRNP, and the codon 129 is a methionine homozygous genotype.
2010, 23(2): 161-166.
Objective To investigate the protective effects of putative AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts) inhibitor salidroside against aging in an accelerated mouse aging model induced by D-galactose. Methods A group of 5-month-old C57BL/6J mice were treated daily with D-galactose, D-galactose combined with salidroside, salidroside alone, and control buffer for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment, serum AGEs levels, neurological activities, expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the cerebral cortex, as well as lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production were determined. Results D-galactose induced mouse aging model was developed as described before. As expected, salidroside blocked D-galactose induced increase of serum AGEs levels. It also reversed D-galactose induced aging effects in neural and immune system, as evidenced by improving motor activity, increasing memory latency time, and enhancing lymphocyte mitogenesis and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Furthermore, elevated expression of GFAP and NT-3 in the aged model mice was also reduced upon salidroside treatment. Conclusion Salidroside inhibits AGEs formation in vivo, which at least partially contributes to its anti-aging effect in D-galactose induced aging model.