Objective To explore the influence of secular trends in body height and weight on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Methods The data were obtained from five cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI-for-age Z-score of per the Wold Health Organization (WHO) reference values. Body height and weight for each sex and age were standardized to those reported in 1985 (standardized height: SHY; standardized weight: SWY) and for each sex and year at age 7 (standardized height: SHA; standardized weight: SWA) using the Z-score method. Results The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Chinese children was 20.2% among boys and 10.7%among girls in 2010 and increased continuously from 1985 to 2010. Among boys and girls of normal weight, SHY and SHA were significantly greater than SWY and SWA, respectively (P < 0.001). Among boys and girls with overweight/obesity, SHY was significantly lower than SWY (P < 0.001), and showed an obvious decreasing trend after age 12. SHA was lower than SWA among overweight boys aged 7-8 years and girls aged 7-9 years. SHY/SHW and SHA/SWA among normal-weight groups were greater than among overweight and obese groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion The continuous increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Chinese children may be related to a rapid increase in body weight before age 9 and lack of secular increase in body height after age 12.
Objective The present study was designed to investigate the effects of subchronic low level microwave radiation (MWR) on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level and DNA damage in brain of Fischer rats. Methods Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 90 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups:Group I: Sham exposed, Group II: animals exposed to microwave radiation at 900 MHz and specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10-4 W/kg, Group III: animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 × 10-4 W/kg and Group IV: animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10-4 W/kg. All the animals were tested for cognitive function using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze at the end of the exposure period and subsequently sacrificed to collect brain tissues. HSP70 levels were estimated by ELISA and DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay. Results Microwave exposure at 900-2450 MHz with SAR values as mentioned above lead to decline in cognitive function, increase in HSP70 level and DNA damage in brain. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that low level microwave exposure at frequencies 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz may lead to hazardous effects on brain.
Objective PERK/eIF2α/CHOP is a major signaling pathway mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related with atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) also induces endothelial apoptosis and plays a vital role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to explore the regulatory effect of ox-LDL on PERK/eIF2α/CHOP signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells. Methods The effects of ox-LDL on PERK and p-eIF2α protein expression of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated by Western blot analysis. PERK gene silencing and selective eIF2α phosphatase inhibitor, salubrinal were used to inhibit the process of ox-LDL induced endothelial cell apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and CHOP mRNA level. Results Ox-LDL treatment significantly increased the expression of PERK, PERK-mediated inactivation of eIF2α phosphorylation, and the expression of CHOP, as well as the caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. The effects of ox-LDL were markedly decreased by knocking down PERK with stable transduction of lentiviral shRNA or by selective eIF2α phosphatase inhibitor, salubrinal. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that ox-LDL induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells mediated largely via the PERK/eIF2α/CHOP ER-stress pathway. It adds new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis.
Objective This paper aims to investigate the apoptotic effect of inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan-enveloped, HVJ-E) on murine melanoma cells (B16F10) and the possible mechanisms involved in the putative apoptotic reactions. Methods B16F10 cells were treated with HVJ-E at various multiplicities of infection (MOI), and the reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability, and apoptosis were measured. Next, the roles of ROS in the regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in HVJ-E-treated B16F10 cells were analyzed. To further evaluate the cytotoxic effect of HVJ-E-generated ROS on B16F10 cells, HVJ-E was intratumorally injected, both with and without N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), into melanoma tumors on BALB/c mice. Tumor volume was then monitored for 3 weeks, and the tumor proteins were separated for immunoblot assay. Results Treatment of B16F10 cells with HVJ-E resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell-viability and an induction of apoptosis. The latter effect was associated with the generation of ROS. Inhibition of ROS generation by NAC resulted in a significant reduction of HVJ-E-induced Erk1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK activation. Additionally, ROS inhibition caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio as well as promoting activation of apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These results suggest that HVJ-E possesses potential anticancer activity in B16F10 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK pathway.
Objective This study aimed to explore the association between periconceptional fish consumption by parents and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intelligence deficiency (ID). Methods A case-control study was conducted through a questionnaire with 108 ASD cases, 79 ID cases, and 108 controls. The ASD and ID cases were students from special educational schools in Tianjin from 2012 to 2014. The age- and sex-matched controls were from a high school, three primary schools, and a kindergarten in Tianjin. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Results Paternal habit of eating hairtail before fertilization, maternal preference for fruits during pregnancy, and maternal habit of eating grass carp during pregnancy were preventive factors for ASD. Paternal habit of drinking alcohol before fertilization was a risk factor for ID, whereas maternal preference for fruits during pregnancy and maternal habit of eating crucian carp during pregnancy were protective factors for ID. Conclusion Parental fish consumption is beneficial for the prevention of ASD and ID. Meanwhile, the protective effects of fish consumption on ASD and ID differ. More attention should be paid to the combined effect of other food when eating fish.
In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.
Fifteen pediatric cases of suspected Japanese encephalitis (JE) were reported in Beijing Children’s Hospital during the late summer of 2013. The clinical manifestations in most cases included high fever, seizures, and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings. Twelve of 15 cases were laboratory-confirmed as JE cases by pathogen identification. Epidemiological investigations showed that five of the 12 laboratory-confirmed patients had an incomplete JE vaccination history. Follow-up investigations after discharge indicated that seven laboratory-confirmed JE patients without JE vaccinations had relatively poor prognoses, with an average Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score of 2.6 when compared with the other five laboratory-confirmed, JE-vaccinated patients with an average MRS score of 0.5. The observation of pediatric JE cases among those with a history of JE vaccination warrants further attention.
The standardized hypertension management provided by primary health care workers is an important part of China’s recent health care reform efforts. Investigating 5,116 hypertensive patients from a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, this study found that adherence to standardized hypertension management is associated with positive effects on hypertension-related knowledge, healthy lifestyle behavior, antihypertensive medical treatments, and blood pressure control. It will be necessary to provide primary health care workers with sufficient training and reasonable incentives to ensure the implementation and effectiveness of hypertension management.