Objective This panel study aimed to determine the acute effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on schoolchildren’s pulmonary function.Methods We selected 51 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years attending a full-time boarding school in Beijing, China, measured the indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for five consecutive days, calculated the PM2.5 time-weighted individual exposure levels based on the school micro-environmental concentrations and the time activity pattern recorded by schoolchildren, measured schoolchildren’s pulmonary function on the fifth day. The survey was performed three times from December 2018 to April 2019. We used a linear mixed-effects model to evaluate the associations between PM2.5 and pulmonary function.Results During the three surveys, the median PM2.5 time-weighted individual exposure concentrations were 15.30 μg/m3, 48.92 μg/m3, and 42.89 μg/m3, respectively. There was a significant difference between the three surveys in vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) (P < 0.05). The relevance analysis found that PM2.5 had lag effect on schoolchildren’s pulmonary function, each 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 could cause largest decreases in FEF25%–75%, FEV1/FVC, FEF75%, and FEV1 on lag 0–1 d (80.44 mL/s, 35.85%, 78.58 mL/s, and 61.34 mL, respectively), and largest decreases in FEF25% on lag 1 d (83.68 mL/s), in VC on lag 4 d (32.34 mL), and in FVC on lag 0–4 d (37.76 mL). Gender subgroup analysis revealed that the increase in PM2.5 caused a decrease in FEV1/FVC and VC on the day of physical examination only in boys, and on lag days it caused changes in different pulmonary function indicators, both for boys and girls, but most of the pulmonary function indicators decreased more in boys than in girls.Conclusion Our findings show that acute PM2.5 exposure has significant effects on pulmonary function within 0–4 d, on both small airway indicators and large airway indicators. Boys’ pulmonary function is more sensitive to PM2.5 than girls.
Objective To estimate the association between three B-vitamin intakes and sociodemographic factors among adults in China.Methods We derived our data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) among 12,241 individuals aged 18–64 years. Log binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios for factors associated with the inadequate intake of B-vitamins.Results Females with low incomes and living in the north had a higher prevalence of inadequate riboflavin intake than those with high incomes and living in the south. Both males and females living in a village had a higher prevalence of inadequate riboflavin intake than adults living in a city. Adults with low income, low education, and living in the north or in a village had a higher prevalence of inadequate niacin intake than adults with a high income, high education, and living in the south or in a city.Conclusion We found that income, region, and area of residence were associated with riboflavin intake. Education, income, region, and area of residence were associated with niacin intake. Well-tailored strategies and policies are needed to improve nutritional status in China.
Objective In China, 24 cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus have been confirmed since the first confirmed case in 2014. Therefore, we developed and assessed two H5N6 candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs).Methods In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, we constructed two reassortant viruses using reverse genetics (RG) technology to match the two different epidemic H5N6 viruses. We performed complete genome sequencing to determine the genetic stability. We assessed the growth ability of the studied viruses in MDCK cells and conducted a hemagglutination inhibition assay to analyze their antigenicity. Pathogenicity attenuation was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo.Results The results showed that no mutations occurred in hemagglutinin or neuraminidase, and both CVVs retained their original antigenicity. The replication capacity of the two CVVs reached a level similar to that of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 in MDCK cells. The two CVVs showed low pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, which are in line with the WHO requirements for CVVs.Conclusion We obtained two genetically stable CVVs of HPAI H5N6 with high growth characteristics, which may aid in our preparedness for a potential H5N6 pandemic.
Objective To investigate the effect of c-fos gene silencing on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5).Methods HBE cells and c-fos-silenced HBE cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL PM2.5, LC-MS/MS and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling methods were combined with bioinformatics methods, and DEPs and interaction networks were identified.Results In the HBE group, 414 DEPs were screened, of which 227 were up-regulated and 187 down-regulated. In the c-fos silenced HBE group, 480 DEPs were screened, including 240 up-regulated proteins and 240 down-regulated proteins. KEGG annotations showed that DEPs in the HBE group are mainly concentrated in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and those in the c-fos silenced group are concentrated mainly in endoplasmic reticulum and the processing of proteins. Additionally, the abnormal expression of GPRC5C, DKK4, and UBE2C was identified in top 15 DEPs. After constructing the protein interaction network, 20 Hub proteins including HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPL, RPS15A, and RPS25 were screened from the HBE group and the c-fos silenced HBE group.Conclusion c-fos gene affected the expression of cancer-related proteins. Our results provided a scientific basis for further study of PM2.5-induced carcinogenesis mechanism.
Objective To evaluate the efficiency of silymarin (SMN) in modulating metabolic parameters and redox status in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).Methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. The diabetic rats were administered with SMN at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight/d for 30 consecutive days. The rats were divided into the following four groups: vehicle control, diabetic (alloxan-treated), DS50 (alloxan + 50 mg/kg body weight/d of SMN), and DS100 (alloxan + 100 mg/kg body weight/d of SMN) groups. The bodyweight and food and water intake were evaluated. After 30 d, the animals were euthanized and the blood was collected for measuring the serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), urea, and creatinine. The liver and pancreas were collected for measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of carbonylated protein (PC). The pancreas sample was also used for histological analysis.Results SMN reduced hepatic (P < 0.001) and pancreatic (P < 0.001) protein damage and creatinine levels (P = 0.0141) in addition to decreasing food (P < 0.001) and water intake (P < 0.001). However, treatment with SMN did not improve beta-cell function or decrease blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.Conclusion SMN improved polyphagia and polydipsia, renal function, and protected the liver and pancreas against protein damage without affecting hyperglycemia in diabetic animals.
Objective To evaluate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods Patients from the Fushun Diabetic Retinopathy Cohort Study (FS-DIRECT), a community-based prospective cohort study conducted in northeast China, were included in this study. The presence and severity of DR were determined by grading fundus photographs according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinopathy scale. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were recorded using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using an iCare rebound tonometer. MOPP was calculated using the formula MOPP = 2/3 [DBP + 1/3 (SBP − DBP)] − IOP.Results In total, 1,857 patients who had gradable fundus photography and MOPP data were enrolled in this study. Male patients had a higher MOPP than female patients (52.25 ± 8.75 vs. 50.96 ± 8.74 mmHg, P = 0.002). Overall, both male and female patients with any type of DR, non-proliferative DR (NPDR), or non-sight-threatening DR (non-STDR) had significantly higher MOPP relative to patients without DR. Increased MOPP (per 1 mmHg) was in turn associated with the presence of any type of DR [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.02–1.04], NPDR (OR =1.03 95% CI: 1.02–1.04), and non-STDR (OR =1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04) after adjusting for confounders. Increased MOPP (per 1 mmHg) was also associated with an increased likelihood of macular edema (OR =1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04).Conclusions The results suggest that increased MOPP was associated with DR and macular edema in northeastern Chinese patients with T2DM.