2018, 31(2): 87-96.
Objective MicroRNAs (miRs) are attractive molecules to be considered as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to explore their potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD. Methods The expression levels of exosomal miR-135a, -193b, and-384 in the serum from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients were measured with a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) method. Results Both serum exosome miR-135a and miR-384 were up-regulated while miR-193b was down-regulated in serum of AD patients compared with that of normal controls. Exosome miR-384 was the best among the three miRs to discriminate AD, VaD, and PDD. Using the cut-off value could better interpret these laboratory test results than reference intervals in the AD diagnosis. ROC curve showed that the combination of miR-135a, -193b, and-384 was proved to be better than a particular one for early AD diagnosis. Conclusion Our results indicated that the exosomal miRs in the serum were not only potential biomarker of AD early diagnosis, but might also provide novel insights into the screen and prevention of the disease.
2015, 28(1): 57-71.
The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.
2019, 32(9): 659-672.
Objective Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) feature different inflammatory and cellular profiles in the airways, indicating that the cellular metabolic pathways regulating these disorders are distinct. Methods We aimed to compare the serum metabolomic profiles among mild persistent asthmatic patients, individuals with stable COPD, and healthy subjects and to explore the potential metabolic biomarkers and pathways. The serum metabolomic profiles of 17 subjects with mild persistent asthma, 17 subjects with stable COPD, and 15 healthy subjects were determined by an untargeted metabolomic analysis utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A series of multivariate statistical analyses was subsequently used. Results Multivariate analysis indicated a distinct separation between the asthmatic patients and healthy controls in electrospray positive and negative ions modes, respectively. A total of 19 differential metabolites were identified. Similarly, a distinct separation between asthma and COPD subjects was detected in the two ions modes. A total of 16 differential metabolites were identified. Among the identified metabolites, the serum levels of hypoxanthine were markedly higher in asthmatic subjects compared with those in COPD or healthy subjects. Conclusions Patients with asthma present a unique serum metabolome, which can distinguish them from individuals with COPD and healthy subjects. Purine metabolism alteration may be distinct and involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
2019, 32(5): 324-333.
Objective To investigate the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV1). Methods We used cell culture, long-overlapping RT-PCR, and spot hybridization assays to verify and accurately locate the sites of action of ozone that cause PV1 inactivation. We also employed recombinant viral genome RNA infection models to confirm our observations. Results Our results indicated that ozone inactivated PV1 primarily by disrupting the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) of the PV1 genome. Further study revealed that ozone specifically damaged the 80-124 nucleotide (nt) region in the 5'-NCR. Recombinant viral genome RNA infection models confirmed that PV1 lacking this region was non-infectious. Conclusion In this study, we not only elucidated the mechanisms by which ozone induces PV1 inactivation but also determined that the 80-124 nt region in the 5'-NCR is targeted by ozone to achieve this inactivation.
2013, 26(11): 902-911.
Objective To explore the effects of resveratrol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells and potential molecular mechanisms.
Methods The anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol-induced, apoptosis and autophagy on T-ALL cells were detected by using MTT test, immunofluorescence, electronic microscope, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed for detecting changes of apoptosis-associated proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins and state of activation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and p38-MAPK.
Results Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-ALL cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via up regulating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and down regulating cyclin A and cyclin D1. Western blotting revealed that resveratrol significantly decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Bim, and Bad), and induced cleaved-caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. Significant increase in ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 was also detected. Furthermore, resveratrol induced significant dephosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, but enhanced specific phosphorylation of p38-MAPK which could be blocked by SB203580. When autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA, apoptosis in T-ALL cells induced by resveratrol was enhanced.
Conclusion Our findings have suggested that resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in T-ALL cells through inhibiting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. Autophagy might play a role as a self-defense mechanism in T-ALL cells treated by resveratrol. Therefore, the reasonable inhibition of autophagy in T-ALL cells may serve as a promising strategy for resveratrol induced apoptosis and can be used as adjuvant chemotherapy for T-ALL.
2018, 31(9): 637-644.
Objective The primary aim of the study was to compare two nutritional status evaluation tools:the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002). Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the second aim was to provide constructive advice regarding the quality of life of patients with malignancy. Methods This study enrolled 312 oncology patients and assessed their nutritional status and quality of life using the PG-SGA, NRS-2002, and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results The data indicate that 6% of the cancer patients were well nourished. The SGA-A had a higher sensitivity (93.73%) but a poorer specificity (2.30%) than the NRS-2002 (69.30% and 25.00%, respectively) after comparison with albumin. There was a low negative correlation and a high similarity between the PG-SGA and NRS-2002 for evaluating nutritional status, and there was a significant difference in the median PG-SGA scores for each of the SGA classifications (P < 0.001). The SGA-C group showed the highest PG-SGA scores and lowest body mass index. The majority of the target population received 2 points for each item in our 11-item questionnaire from the EORTC QLQ-C30. Conclusion The data indicate that the PG-SGA is more useful and suitable for evaluating nutritional status than the NRS-2002. Additionally, early nutrition monitoring can prevent malnutrition and improve the quality of life of cancer patients.
Objective This study estimated the investment in child development from three aspects-public health,public education,and family investment to establish the level of investment,to provide reference information for government decision making and to provide international comparisons.Methods Public investment in health was measured with macro data related to public health spending and child development in government expenditure.Public education investment was based on basic education data.Family investment evaluation was based on per capita family consumer spending data in different age groups to estimate the input for child development.Results Both public health investment level and the proportion of GDP rose for all age groups over time,but the overall investment level was still insufficient.Public investment in children's education has increased year by year,but the trends in all age groups are unbalanced with much lower investment in early childhood education.Private investment in children has increased over the period,but has declined as a percentage of GDP.International comparisons show that China's investment in child development is much lower than OECD countries.Conclusion The private investment in child development was the main way in China,with public finance contributing only a small proportion.Given the poor international comparisons,the government needs to review the balance of public investment to redirect more towards the development of children under the age of six to their health and education.
Major and profound changes have taken place in China over the past 30 years.Rapid socioeconomic progress has exerted a great impact on lifestyle,ranging from food,clothing,working and living conditions,and means of transportation to leisure activities and entertainment.At the same time,new health problems have emerged,and health services are facing new challenges.Presently,cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top health problems of the Chinese people,and pose a serious challenge to all engaged in the prevention and control of these diseases.An epidemic of CVD in China is emerging as a result of lifestyle changes,urbanization and longevity.Both national policy decision-making and medical practice urgently need an authoritative report which comprehensively reflects the trends in the epidemic of CVD and current preventive measures.Since 2005,guided by the Bureau of Disease Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China,nationwide experts in the fields of epidemiology,clinical medicine and health economics in the realms of CVD,cerebrovascular disease,diabetes and chronic kidney disease,completed the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China every year.The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD.In addition,as the report is authoritative,representative and readable,it will become an information platform in the CVD field and an important reference book for government,academic institutes,medical organizations and clinical physicians.This publication is expected to play a positive role in the prevention and control of CVD in China.We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2010),including trends in CVD,morbidity and mortality of major CVDs,up-to-date assessment of risk factors,as well as health resources for CVD,and a profile of medical expenditure,with the aim of providing evidence for decision-making in CVD prevention and control programs in China,and of delivering the most authoritative information on CVD prevention and control for all citizens.
2019, 32(12): 893-904.
Objective Accumulation of estrogenic compounds and other carcinogens in normal breast tissues contributes to unpredictable breast cancer incidence during adolescence and throughout life. To assess the role of parabens in this phenomenon, the paraben content of adjacent normal-malignant breast tissues is measured in women with breast cancer living in Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods Adjacent normal-malignant breast tissue samples were obtained from 53 subjects. The parabens including methyl-paraben (MePB), ethyl-paraben (EtPB), propyl-paraben (PrPB), and butyl-paraben (BuPB) were extracted from the sample supernatant and then subjected to gas chromatography analysis. Results Some risk factors for breast cancer were stimulated by parabens in adjacent malignant-normal breast tissues among young and middle-aged women with breast cancer. We observed a significant association for dose-response pattern of MePB [OR = 98.34 (11.43–185.2), P = 0.027] for both ER+ and PR+ women and MePB [OR = 164.3 (CI: 112.3–216.3), P < 0.001] for HER2+ women than women with negative receptors. The risk of 95-fold increase in MePB dose and 164-fold increase in ∑PBs dose were significant for women with hereditary breast cancer in first-degree relatives. Conclusions These results may promote future epidemiology studies and strategies to improve women’s lifestyle and consume paraben-free products.
2014, 27(8): 606-613.
Objective The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies.
Methods A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared.
Results Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg·d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P<0.05).
Conclusion The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg·d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg·d) and 132.05 mg N/kg·d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg·d), respectively.
2019, 32(10): 739-754.
Objective This study aimed to explore the potential effects of terahertz (THz) waves on primary cultured neurons from 4 rat brain regions (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem) and 3 kinds of neuron-like cells (MN9D, PC12, and HT22 cells) under nonthermal conditions. Methods THz waves with an output power of 50 (0.16 THz) and 10 (0.17 THz) mW with exposure times of 6 and 60 min were used in this study. Analysis of temperature change, neurite growth, cell membrane roughness, micromorphology, neurotransmitters and synaptic-related proteins (SYN and PSD95) was used to evaluate the potential effects. Results Temperature increase caused by the THz wave was negligible. THz waves induced significant neurotransmitter changes in primary hippocampal, cerebellar, and brainstem neurons and in MN9D and PC12 cells. THz wave downregulated SYN expression in primary hippocampal neurons and downregulated PSD95 expression in primary cortical neurons. Conclusion Different types of cells responded differently after THz wave exposure, and primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and MN9D cells were relatively sensitive to the THz waves. The biological effects were positively correlated with the exposure time of the THz waves.
For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (＜24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for women, could prevent 47%-58% clustering of risk factors. According to these, a classification of overweight and obesity for Chinese adults is recommended.
2019, 32(6): 438-445.
Objective This study was conducted to investigate the viral and bacterial etiology and epidemiology of patients with acute febrile respiratory syndrome (AFRS) in Qinghai using a commercial routine multiplex-ligation-nucleic acid amplification test (NAT)-based assay. Methods A total of 445 nasopharyngeal swabs specimens from patients with AFRS were analyzed using the RespiFinderSmart22kit (PathoFinder BV, Netherlands) and the LightCycler 480 real-time PCR system. Results Among the 225 (225/445, 51%) positive specimens, 329 positive pathogens were detected, including 298 (90.58%) viruses and 31 (9%) bacteria. The most commonly detected pathogens were infiuenza virus (IFV; 37.39%; 123/329), adenovirus (AdV; 17.02%; 56/329), human coronaviruses (HCoVs; 10.94%; 36/329), rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV; 10.03%; 33/329), parainfiuenza viruses (PIVs; 8.51%; 28/329), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneu; 8.51%; 28/329), respectively. Among the co-infected cases (17.53%; 78/445), IFV/AdV and IFV/M. pneu were the most common co-infections. Most of the respiratory viruses were detected in summer and fall. Conclusion In our study, IFV-A was the most common respiratory pathogen among 22 detected pathogens, followed by AdV, HCoV, RV/EV, PIV, and M. pneu. Bacteria appeared less frequently than viruses, and co-infection was the most common phenomenon among viral pathogens. Pathogens were distributed among different age groups and respiratory viruses were generally active in July, September, and November. Enhanced surveillance and early detection can be useful in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AFRS, as well as for guiding the development of appropriate public health strategies.
2019, 32(8): 559-570.
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
2017, 30(5): 384-389.
China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients.
2020, 33(1): 1-10.
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
2019, 32(8): 578-591.
Objective We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. Methods In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage:(a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). Results In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. Conclusion These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.