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Supplementation of Fermented Barley Extracts with Lactobacillus Plantarum dy-1 Inhibits Obesity via a UCP1-dependent Mechanism
XIAO Xiang, BAI Juan, LI Ming Song, ZHANG Jia Yan, SUN Xin Juan, DONG Ying
2019, 32(8): 578-591. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.076
Objective We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. Methods In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage:(a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). Results In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. Conclusion These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.
Trends in Lipids Level and Dyslipidemia among Chinese Adults, 2002-2015
SONG Peng Kun, MAN Qing Qing, LI Hong, PANG Shao Jie, JIA Shan Shan, LI Yu Qian, HE Li, ZHAO Wen Hua, ZHANG Jian
2019, 32(8): 559-570. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.074
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
Low Calf Circumference Predicts Nutritional Risks in Hospitalized Patients Aged More Than 80 Years
ZHANG Xiao Yan, ZHANG Xing Liang, ZHU Yun Xia, TAO Jun, ZHANG Zhen, ZHANG Yue, WANG Yan Yan, KE Ying Ying, REN Chen Xi, XU Jun, ZHONG Yuan
2019, 32(8): 571-577. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.075
Objective The aim of this study wasto determine whether low calf circumference (CC) could predict nutritional risk and the cutoff values of CC for predicting nutritional risk in hospitalized patients aged ≥ 80 years. Methods A total of 1, 234 consecutive patients aged ≥ 80 years were enrolled in this study. On admission, demographic data, CC, and laboratory parameters were obtained. Patients with Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) total score ≥ 3 were considered as having nutritional risk. Results CC values were significantly lower in patients with nutritional risk compared to those in patients without nutritional risk[27.00 (24.50-31.00) vs. 31.00 (29.00-33.50], P < 0.001]. CC was negatively correlated with age and nutritional risk scores. Logistic regression analysis of nutritional risk revealed that body mass index, albumin level, hemoglobin level, cerebral infarction, neoplasms, and CC (OR, 0.897; 95% confidence interval, 0.856-0.941; P < 0.001) were independent impact factors of nutritional risk. Nutritional risk scores increased with a decrease in CC. In men, the best CC cutoff value for predicting nutritional risk according to the NRS-2002 was 29.75 cm. In women, the cutoff value was 28.25 cm. Conclusion CC is a simple, noninvasive, and valid anthropometric measure to predict nutritional risk for hospitalized patients aged ≥ 80 years.
Association between Lipoprotein (a) Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in a Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese Cohort
WU Xue Yan, LIN Lin, Qi Hong Yan, DU Rui, HU Chun Yan, MA Li Na, PENG Kui, LI Mian, XU Yu, XU Min, CHEN Yu Hong, LU Jie Li, BI Yu Fang, WANG Wei Qing, NING Guang
2019, 32(7): 477-485. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.065
Objective The association between lipoprotein (a)[Lp(a)] levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between Lp(a) levels and MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study of 10, 336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum Lp(a) levels and MetS. Results In the overall population, 37.5% of participants had MetS. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the highest quartile had a lower prevalence of MetS (30.9% vs. 46.9%, P for trend < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that compared with participants in the bottom quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the top quartile had decreased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS[multivariate-adjusted OR 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.51); P < 0.0001]. Additionally, Lp(a) level was conversely associated with the risk of central obesity, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, but not with hypertension. Stratified analyses suggested that increasing levels of Lp(a) was associated with decreased risk of MetS in all the subgroups. Conclusion Serum Lp(a) level was inversely associated with the risk of prevalent MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.
Food Frequency Questionnaire for Chinese Children Aged 12-17 Years: Validity and Reliability
LIU Dan, JU La Hong, YANG Zhen Yu, ZHANG Qian, GAO Jian Fen, GONG Di Ping, GUO Dan Dan, LUO Shu Quan, ZHAO Wen Hua
2019, 32(7): 486-495. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.066
Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among Chinese children aged 12-17 years. Methods A semi-quantitative 72-food item FFQ was developed for children aged 12-17 years. The reliability and validity of this FFQ were evaluated against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DRs) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients. We administered two FFQs and three DRs to children (N=160) over a period of 1 month to evaluate the reliability and validity. Reliability was examined by quartile agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and validity was examined by quartile agreement, Bland-Altman plots and correlation with DRs. Results For reliability, the ICCs between the two FFQs ranged from 0.21 to 0.76 for foods and nutrients, and the quartile agreement ranged from 70.0% to 95.0% in the same or adjacent quartiles. Spearman's correlation coefficients of foods and nutrients between the second FFQ and the 24 h DRs ranged from -0.04 to 0.59. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement across the range of intakes among nutrients. The quartile agreement ranged from 50.0% to 100.0%, with infrequent misclassification. Conclusion The FFQ assessment of dietary intakes demonstrated acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for Chinese children aged 12-17 years.
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Disorders Lipid Metabolism via TYK2/STAT1 and Autophagy in Rats
ZHANG Yue Zhu, ZHANG Zhao Ming, ZHOU Li Ting, ZHU Jian, ZHANG Xiao Han, QI Wen, DING Shuang, XU Qi, HAN Xu, ZHAO Ya Ming, SONG Xin Yue, ZHAO Tian Yang, YE Lin
2019, 32(6): 406-418. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.055
Objective Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. Methods In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP[0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg·d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. Results The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg·d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. Conclusion It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.
Subchronic Oral Cadmium Exposure Exerts both Stimulatory and Suppressive Effects on Pulmonary Inflammation/Immune Reactivity in Rats
KULAS Jelena, NINKOV Marina, TUCOVIC Dina, POPOV Aleksandrov Aleksandra, UKROPINA Mirela, CAKIC MILOSEVIC Maja, MUTIC Jelena, KATARANOVSKI Milena, MIKROV Ivana
2019, 32(7): 508-519. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.068
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response. Methods Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines[interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated. Results Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro. Conclusion The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.
Power Analysis and Sample Size Determination for Crossover Trials with Application to Bioequivalence Assessment of Topical Ophthalmic Drugs Using Serial Sampling Pharmacokinetic Data
YU Yong Pei, YAN Xiao Yan, YAO Chen, XIA Jie Lai
2019, 32(8): 614-623. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.079
Objective To develop methods for determining a suitable sample size for bioequivalence assessment of generic topical ophthalmic drugs using crossover design with serial sampling schemes. Methods The power functions of the Fieller-type confidence interval and the asymptotic confidence interval in crossover designs with serial-sampling data are here derived. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the derived power functions. Results Simulation studies show that two power functions can provide precise power estimates when normality assumptions are satisfied and yield conservative estimates of power in cases when data are log-normally distributed. The intra-correlation showed a positive correlation with the power of the bioequivalence test. When the expected ratio of the AUCs was less than or equal to 1, the power of the Fieller-type confidence interval was larger than the asymptotic confidence interval. If the expected ratio of the AUCs was larger than 1, the asymptotic confidence interval had greater power. Sample size can be calculated through numerical iteration with the derived power functions. Conclusion The Fieller-type power function and the asymptotic power function can be used to determine sample sizes of crossover trials for bioequivalence assessment of topical ophthalmic drugs.
Exposure to Radon and Kidney Cancer:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Epidemiological Studies
CHEN Bin, YUAN Tan Wei, WANG Ai Qing, ZHANG Hong, FANG Li Jun, WU Qian Qian, ZHANG Hong Bo, TAO Sha Sha, TIAN Hai Lin
2018, 31(11): 805-815. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.108
Objective To evaluate the possible association between radon exposure and kidney cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis based on random effect models to provide a pooled association measure. Results We subjected 8 studies (overall relative risks and 95% confidence intervals: 1.01, 0.72 to 1.43, I2=64.4%) to meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed a marginally significant association between radon exposure and kidney cancer in studies conducted in Europe. Two population-based studies provided no evidence for the increased risk of kidney cancer in the general population. Conclusion The association between radon and kidney cancer remains unclear but cannot be excluded because of its biological plausibility and the limited number and quality of existing studies. Additional data from the general population and well-designed miner cohort studies are needed to reveal the real relationship between radon exposure and kidney cancer.
Effects of Hypoxia on the Growth and Development of the Fetal Ovine Hepatocytes in Primary Culture
CAO Li, WANG Juan, BO Le, LI Da Wei, YIN Na, ZHOU An Wen, MAO Cai Ping
2019, 32(8): 592-601. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.077
Objective To investigate the development and characterizations of the hepatocytes isolated from fetal ovine and to determine the effect of hypoxia on their growth and metabolism. Methods Fresh hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of fetal ovine at late gestation, cultured in specific media, and exposed to normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2). The cellular characteristics and population purity were identified by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry (FCM). The effects of hypoxia on cell cycle and apoptosis of the hepatocytes were evaluated by FCM, whereas the cellular ultrastructure changes were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Results The cell purity of hepatocytes was over 95%. Under hypoxia exposure, the hepatocytes showed a gradual increase in proportion at the S phase and in proliferative index, followed with a compatible increase in apoptosis and progressively decreased cell viability. Additionally, the organelles of the hepatocytes demonstrated dramatic changes, including swelling of mitochondria, disorder in cristae arrangement, expansion of endoplasmic reticulum, and a large number of circular lipid droplets emerging in the cytoplasm. Conclusion Fetal ovine hepatocytes could be primarily cultured in a short-term culture system with a high purity of over 95% and with their preserved original characteristics. Hypoxia could induce changes in ultrastructural and inhibit the proliferation of cultured fetal ovine hepatocytes through apoptotic mechanisms.
Glutamate Impairs Mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Capacity and Enhances Glycolysis in Cultured Rat Astrocytes
YAN Xu, SHI Zhong Fang, XU Li Xin, LI Jia Xin, WU Min, WANG Xiao Xuan, JIA Mei, DONG Li Ping, YANG Shao Hua, YUAN Fang
2017, 30(1): 44-51. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.005
Objective To study the effect of glutamate on metabolism, shifts in glycolysis and lactate release in rat astrocytes. Methods After 10 days, secondary cultured astrocytes were treated with 1 mmol/L glutamate for 1 h, and the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extra cellular acidification rate (ECAR) was analyzed using a Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Cell viability was then evaluated by MTT assay. Moreover, changes in extracellular lactate concentration induced by glutamate were tested with a lactate detection kit. Results Compared with the control group, treatment with 1 mmol/L glutamate decreased the astrocytes' maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity but increased their glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve. Further analysis found that 1-h treatment with different concentrations of glutamate (0.1-1 mmol/L) increased lactate release from astrocytes, however the cell viability was not affected by the glutamate treatment. Conclusion The current study provided direct evidence that exogenous glutamate treatment impaired the mitochondrial respiration capacity of astrocytes and enhanced aerobic glycolysis, which could be involved in glutamate injury or protection mechanisms in response to neurological disorders.
Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Cadmium and Its Regulation on Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Kidneys of Rats
CHEN Zhi Jian, CHEN Jia Xing, WU Li Kang, LI Bi Yun, TIAN Ya Feng, XIAN Min, HUANG Zi Pei, YU Ri An
2019, 32(1): 1-10. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.001
Objective This study was conducted to investigate the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress on Nrf2 signaling pathway in the kidneys of rats. Methods Rats were divided into twelve groups of six animals each. Some groups were pre-administered with bacitracin or tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and all of them were treated with 5-20 μmol/kg cadmium (Cd) for 48 h. The oxidative stress levels were analyzed using kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related factors were determined using RT-PCR and western blot. Results Cd exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the kidneys of rats and upregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related factors and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related factors, especially at doses of 10 and 20 μmol/kg Cd, and the expression changes were particularly obvious. Moreover, after pretreatment with bacitracin, Cd upregulated the expression of ERS-related factors to a certain extent and, at higher doses, increased the mRNA expression of Nrf2. After pretreatment with TUDCA, Cd reduced the level of ERS to a certain extent; however, at these doses, there were no significant changes in the expression of Nrf2. Conclusion Cadmium can result in ERS and oxidative stress in the kidneys of rats, activate Nrf2, and upregulate the transcriptional expression of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes under these experimental conditions. ERS has a positive regulation effect on Nrf2 signaling pathway but has little effect on the negative regulation of Nrf2 signaling pathway in cadmium toxicity.
Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China
CHENG Jun, ZHANG Hui, ZHAO Yan Lin, WANG Li Xia, CHEN Ming Ting
2017, 30(5): 384-389. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.051
China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients.
Surveys in Areas of High Risk of Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess in China, 2012-2014: Current Status and Examination of the Relationship between Urinary Iodine Concentration and Goiter Prevalence in Children Aged 8-10 Years
CUI Si Lu, LIU Peng, SU Xiao Hui, LIU Shou Jun
2017, 30(2): 88-96. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.012
Objective We aimed to evaluate goiter prevalence and iodine nutritional status in areas with high levels of water iodine; to monitor the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in areas at high risk of IDD; and to compare the prevalence of goiter and urine iodine (UI) concentrations between children living in the two areas. Methods Based on surveillance from 2012-2014, we analyzed the concentration of UI and prevalence of goiter in 8-10-year-old children from 12 high-risk IDD provinces, and from 8 provinces and municipalities with excessive water iodine. We calculated goiter prevalence for each UI level according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards and constructed predictive prevalence curves. Results The goiter prevalence and median UI of children from areas with high water iodine were not optimal, being above the WHO standards (5% and 100-199 μg/L, respectively), whereas those in high-risk areas fell within the standard. UI and goiter prevalence exhibited a U-shaped relationship in high-risk endemic areas and a parabolic relationship in areas of iodine excess. Conclusion Iodine surplus in high-iodine areas leads to high goiter prevalence and UI. However, in high-risk areas, UI was optimal and goiter prevalence met the national criteria for IDD elimination.
Molecular Epidemiology of Coxsackievirus B1-5 Associated with HFMD in Fujian Province, China, 2011-2016
CHEN Wei, WENG Yu Wei, ZHANG Yong Jun, HE Wen Xiang, ZHU Ying, YU Ting Ting, XIE Jian Feng, ZHENG Kui Cheng, YAN Yan Sheng, ZHANG Wen Chang
2019, 32(8): 633-638. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.082
2019, 32(9): 2-2.
Immunological Evaluation of a Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen Rv0674
XIAO Tong Yang, LIU Hai Can, LI Xiao Qin, HUANG Ming Xiang, LI Gui Lian, LI Na, YAN Yu Han, LUO Qiao, WANG Xue Zhi, LI Ma Chao, WAN Kang Lin
2019, 32(6): 427-437. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.056
Objective This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674. Methods To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA. Results The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high-and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines. Conclusion Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.
Prediction of 10-year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Adults Aged 40-79 Years in China: a Nationally Representative Survey
ZHANG Mei, JIANG Yong, WANG LiMin, LI YiChong, HUANG ZhengJing, LI JianHong, ZHOU MaiGeng, ZHAO WenHua
2017, 30(4): 244-254. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.034
Objective To establish the distribution of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Chinese adults. Methods We estimated the 10-year ASCVD risk by applying the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCEs) to the data obtained from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that involved 61, 541 participants (representing 520, 158, 652 Chinese adults) aged 40-79 years. We also compared the ASCVD risk with the 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk, which was calculated using the simplified scoring tables recommended by the Chinese Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (Chinese model). Results Based on the PCEs, the average 10-year ASCVD risk among adults without self-reported stroke or myocardial infraction was 12.5%. Approximately 247 million (47.4%) and 107 million (20.6%) adults had ≥ 7.5% and > 20% 10-year ASCVD risks, respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk > 20% was higher among men, less educated individuals, smokers, drinkers, and physically inactive individuals than among their counterparts. Overall, 29.0% of adults categorized using the Chinese model were overclassified with the PCEs. Conclusion Our results define the distribution of 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults. The 10-year ASCVD risk predicted by the PCEs was higher than the ICVD risk predicted by the Chinese model.
Dairy Consumption and Associations with Nutritional Status of Chinese Children and Adolescents
XU Pei Pei, YANG Ti Ti, XU Juan, LI Li, CAO Wei, GAN Qian, HU Xiao Qi, PAN Hui, ZHAO Wen Hua, ZHANG Qian
2019, 32(6): 393-405. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.054
Objective This study aimed to describe frequency and quantity of total dairy consumption of Chinese children and adolescents and explore the associations between dairy consumption and nutrition status, including stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity. Methods Participants included 28, 250 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 100 kinds of food was used to collect information about frequency and quantity of dairy consumption. Determination of stunting was with a height cutoff value for age and gender, and determination for wasting, overweight, and obesity was with BMI for age and gender. Results Of the total sample, 36.1% of children aged 6-17 reported consuming dairy food more than once per day (≥ 1/day). The average total dairy intake of all the participants was 126.7 g/day. For boys, dairy consumption had an inverse correlation with stunting and wasting after controlling for confounders. For girls, dairy consumption was negatively associated with stunting and obesity after controlling for confounders as above. Conclusion Dairy consumption in Chinese children and adolescents was relatively lower than that in developed countries, and was negatively associated with stunting and wasting for boys and with stunting and obesity for girls.
Impact of Temperature on Influenza A Status during Global Warming Hiatus
YAN Shao Min, WU Guang
2019, 32(7): 554-557. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.073
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