2018, 31(10): 721-728.
Objective In previous studies, we immunized mice with Ebola recombinant protein vaccine and gene vector vaccine. Both stimulated high levels of humoral immunity. In this work, we constructed a pseudovirus containing Ebola membrane proteins to verify whether the two immunization strategies can induce neutralizing antibodies in mice. Methods A pseudovirus containing an Ebola virus membrane protein based on the HIV-1 viral gene sequence was constructed and evaluated using a known neutralizing antibody. The titer of the neutralizing antibody in the sera of mice immunized with the recombinant protein and the gene vector vaccine was examined using a neutralization test. Results Ebola pseudovirus was successfully prepared and applied for neutralizing antibody detection. Immunological experiments showed that recombinant protein GP-Fc and gene vaccine pVR-modGP-Fc had good immunogenicity. The titer of the bound antibody in the serum after 8 weeks of immunization in mice was more than 1:105, and the recombinant protein induced greater humoral immunity. The results of the neutralization test based on the Ebola pseudovirus system demonstrated that both vaccines induced production of protective antibodies, while the gene vaccine induced a higher titer of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusion An Ebola pseudovirus detection system was successfully established and used to evaluate two Ebola vaccines. Both produced good immunogenicity. The findings lay the foundation for the development of new Ebola vaccines and screening for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.
2019, 32(2): 144-152.
Objective The Jidong Women Health Cohort Study is a prospective cohort study on female-specific characteristics and risks of chronic diseases in Chinese women and focuses on the potential association between menopause and risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The study includes 4, 179 female participants with an age of older than 18 years from Caofeidian district, Tangshan city, northern China. Baseline information on female-specific characteristics and potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all the participants underwent a physical examination with blood samples collected in 2013. To establish a better risk assessment tool of female CVD, updated information from questionnaire investigation, physical examinations and occurrence of outcome events will be collected through a longitudinal follow-up annually up to the year 2024. Results At baseline, Mean age of the participants was 42.3 ±12.8 years. Reproduction occurred in 2, 948 participants (70.5%), menopausal transition in 173 (4.3%), and postmenopause in 1, 058 (25.3%). The incidence of arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes showed significant difference across different groups stratified by Stage of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) system (P < 0.05). Conclusion The Jidong Women Health Cohort Study will contribute to the scientific evidence on association between female-specific characteristics and cardiovascular risks, and will also be helpful to provide a new path for early detection and prevention of CVD.
2019, 32(2): 75-86.
Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 549 subjects without previous diagnosis or clinical symptoms of CVD in a community cohort of middle-aged Chinese adults. The participants underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography for the evaluation of the presence and composition of coronary plaques. CVD risk was evaluated by the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score. Results Among the 549 participants, 267 (48.6%) had no coronary plaques, 201 (36.6%) had noncalcified coronary plaques, and 81 (14.8%) had calcified or mixed coronary plaques. The measures of CVD risk including FRS and ASCVD risk score and the likelihood of having elevated FRS significantly increased across the groups of participants without coronary plaques, with noncalcified coronary plaques, and with calcified or mixed coronary plaques. However, only calcified or mixed coronary plaques were significantly associated with an elevated ASCVD risk score[odds ratio (OR) 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-5.32] compared with no coronary plaques, whereas no significant association was found for noncalcified coronary plaques and elevated ASCVD risk score (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.71-2.21) after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion Calcified or mixed coronary plaques might be more associated with an elevated likelihood of having CVD than noncalcified coronary plaques.
2019, 32(2): 87-95.
Objective To assess the 10-year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score among adults in eastern China using the China-PAR equation which formulated primarily for the Chinese population. Methods Data from 72, 129 individuals from 35-74 years old who received routine physical examinations in eastern China were analyzed in this study. The 10-year risk scores were calculated using the China-PAR equation. The chi-square test and logistic regression were then performed to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and overall CVD risk. Results The mean 10-year ASCVD risk scores were 3.82% ±3.76% in men and 1.30% ±1.65% in women based on the China-PAR equation. Overall, 20% of men and 3.5% of women were intermediate-risk, and 7.3% of men and 0.3% of women were high-risk. Waist to hip ratio (WHR)[OR=1.16 (CI 95%=1.06-1.26)], waist to height ratio (WHtR)[OR=1.16 (CI 95%=1.05-1.28)], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)[OR=1.23 (CI 95%=1.09-1.39)], and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C[OR=1.68 (CI 95%=1.46-1.94)] were more strongly associated with CVD risk than body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and TC alone. Conclusion Male-specific prevention and treatment strategies for ASCVD are needed in eastern China. In addition, WHR, WHtR, non-HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C which not included in the the China-PAR equation were also independently associated with 10-year ASCVD risk score categories.
2019, 32(2): 107-120.
Objective Our aim was to explore whether heat stress protein (HSP) 9 preferentially expresses under heat stress and affects the expression of other heat stress proteins as well as to explore the effect of HSPB9 overexpression and knockdown on apoptosis in DF-1. Methods We used gene cloning to construct an overexpression vector of the target gene, and synthesized the target gene interference fragment to transfect the chicken fibroblast cell line. Gene and protein expression, as well as apoptosis, were detected by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Results Chicken DF-1 cells showed an early state of apoptosis in the early stages of HSPB9 overexpression. In the later stages, as HSPB9 expression increased, the cells showed inhibition of apoptosis. When the cells were under heat stress, HSPB9 expression was much higher and earlier than the expression of HSPB1 and HSPA2. In addition, high expression of HSPB9 had a negative effect on HSPB1 and HSPA2 expression. This negative feedback decreased the percentage of early stages of apoptotic cells and promoted cell survival. Conclusion HSPB9 expression, although rapid, is detrimental to cell survival early during its overexpression. In heat stress, HSPB9 overexpression, while inhibiting the expression of HSPA2 and HSPB1, is beneficial to cell survival.
2019, 32(2): 96-106.
Objective To compare the serum glycerophospholipid levels in the inflammatory subtypes of asthma by using targeted metabolomic analysis. Methods Demographic and clinical data were collected from 51 patients with asthma between January 2015 and December 2015. Routine blood and sputum induction tests were performed. Eosinophilic asthma was defined as induced sputum containing ≥ 3% eosinophils, and neutrophilic asthma, as induced sputum containing ≥ 71% neutrophils. Serum metabolic glycerophospholipid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differences in glycerophospholipid levels between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma and between neutrophilic and non-neutrophilic asthma were analyzed using partial least squares discriminant analysis. Results The serum lysophosphatidylglycerol level was significantly higher in the group with ≥ 3% eosinophils in sputum than in the group with < 3% eosinophils in sputum. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was ≥ 70%. There was no significant difference in the serum metabolic glycerophospholipid profile between the group with sputum neutrophils ≥ 71% and the group with sputum neutrophils < 71%. Conclusion Serum lysophosphatidylglycerol is produced abundantly in eosinophilic asthma and may be a biomarker of eosinophilic asthma. This information is helpful for identifying and tailoring treatment for the common asthma subtypes.
2019, 32(2): 134-139.
The health effects of climatic changes constitute an important research area, yet few researchers have reported city- or region-specific projections of temperature-related deaths based on assumptions about mitigation and adaptation. Herein, we provide quantitative projections for the number of additional deaths expected in the future, owing to the cold and heat in the city of Nanjing, China, based on 31 global circulation models (GCMs), two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), and three population scenarios [a constant scenario and two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) (SSP2 and SSP5)], for the periods of 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099. The results show that for the period 2070-2099, the net number of temperature-related deaths can be comparable in the cases of RCP4.5/SSP2 and RCP8.5/SSP5 owing to the offsetting effects attributed to the increase of heat related deaths and the decrease of cold-related deaths. In consideration of this adaptation, we suggest that RCP4.5/SSP2 is a better future development pathway/scenario.
2019, 32(2): 121-125.
2019, 32(2): 130-133.
2019, 32(2): 126-129.
2019, 32(2): 140-143.
2019, 32(7): 496-507.
Objective To explore the dynamic impacts of simulated microgravity (SM) on different vital brain regions of rats. Methods Microgravity was simulated for 7 and 21 days, respectively, using the tail-suspension rat model. Histomorphology, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and the expression of some key proteins were determined in hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum. Results 21-day SM decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor and induced neuron atrophy in the cerebral cortex. Strong oxidative stress was triggered at day 7 and the oxidative status returned to physiological level at day 21. Inflammatory cytokines were gradually suppressed and in striatum, the suppression was regulated partially through c-Jun/c-Fos. Conclusion The results revealed that the significant impacts of SM on rat brain tissue depended on durations and regions, which might help to understand the health risk and to prevent brain damage for astronauts in space travel.
2019, 32(8): 559-570.
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
2019, 32(7): 477-485.
Objective The association between lipoprotein (a)[Lp(a)] levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between Lp(a) levels and MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study of 10, 336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum Lp(a) levels and MetS. Results In the overall population, 37.5% of participants had MetS. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the highest quartile had a lower prevalence of MetS (30.9% vs. 46.9%, P for trend < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that compared with participants in the bottom quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the top quartile had decreased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS[multivariate-adjusted OR 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.51); P < 0.0001]. Additionally, Lp(a) level was conversely associated with the risk of central obesity, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, but not with hypertension. Stratified analyses suggested that increasing levels of Lp(a) was associated with decreased risk of MetS in all the subgroups. Conclusion Serum Lp(a) level was inversely associated with the risk of prevalent MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.
2019, 32(1): 1-10.
Objective This study was conducted to investigate the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress on Nrf2 signaling pathway in the kidneys of rats. Methods Rats were divided into twelve groups of six animals each. Some groups were pre-administered with bacitracin or tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and all of them were treated with 5-20 μmol/kg cadmium (Cd) for 48 h. The oxidative stress levels were analyzed using kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factors and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related factors were determined using RT-PCR and western blot. Results Cd exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the kidneys of rats and upregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related factors and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related factors, especially at doses of 10 and 20 μmol/kg Cd, and the expression changes were particularly obvious. Moreover, after pretreatment with bacitracin, Cd upregulated the expression of ERS-related factors to a certain extent and, at higher doses, increased the mRNA expression of Nrf2. After pretreatment with TUDCA, Cd reduced the level of ERS to a certain extent; however, at these doses, there were no significant changes in the expression of Nrf2. Conclusion Cadmium can result in ERS and oxidative stress in the kidneys of rats, activate Nrf2, and upregulate the transcriptional expression of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes under these experimental conditions. ERS has a positive regulation effect on Nrf2 signaling pathway but has little effect on the negative regulation of Nrf2 signaling pathway in cadmium toxicity.
2019, 32(8): 578-591.
Objective We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. Methods In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage:(a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). Results In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. Conclusion These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.
2019, 32(5): 363-370.
Objective People in Western Africa suffer greatly from febrile jaundice, which is caused by a variety of pathogens. However, yellow fever virus (YFV) is the only pathogen under surveillance in Sierra Leone owing to the undeveloped medical and public health system there. Most of the results of YFV identification are negative. Elucidation of the pathogen spectrum is required to reduce the prevalence of febrile jaundice. Methods In the present study, we used Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing to profile the pathogen spectrum in archived YFV-negative sera from 96 patients in Sierra Leone who presented with unexplained febrile jaundice. Results The most frequently identified sequencing reads belonged to the following pathogens:cytomegalovirus (89.58%), Epstein-Barr virus (55.21%), hepatitis C virus (34.38%), rhinovirus (28.13%), hepatitis A virus (20.83%), coxsackievirus (10.42%), Ebola virus (8.33%), hepatitis E virus (8.33%), lyssavirus (4.17%), leptospirosis (4.17%), chikungunya virus (2.08%), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (1.04%), and hepatitis B virus (1.04%). Conclusion The distribution of sequencing reads suggests a broader spectrum of pathogens for consideration in clinical diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance in Sierra Leone.
2019, 32(7): 508-519.
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response. Methods Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines[interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated. Results Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro. Conclusion The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.
2019, 32(6): 427-437.
Objective This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674. Methods To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA. Results The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high-and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines. Conclusion Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.
2019, 32(6): 406-418.
Objective Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. Methods In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP[0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg·d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. Results The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg·d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. Conclusion It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.