Objective To clarify the contradictory findings in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes by recta-analysis. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched for articles published up to March 2009. All studies on the association of FTO polymorphisms with obesity and type 2 diabetes were included. Pooled odds ratio was calculated using the model of fixed or random effects.Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of meta-analytic results. Results Meta-analysis suggested that rs9939609 A allele was more significantly associated with obesity risk than T allele (3 studies / 2 004 cases and 4 544 control subjects): random effect odds ratio (OR)=1.28, 95%CI=1.05 and 1.55, P_(heterogenetty)=0.05, I~2=66.6%. Similar results were observed in rs8050136 polymorphism (3 studies/2 404 cases and 5 713 control subjects): fixed effect OR =1.25, 95%CI=1.13,1.37, P_(heterogenetty)=0.12,I~2=51.9%. However, no significant association was found between genetics and risk of type 2 diabetes after control of potential confounders (at least for BMI) either for rs9939609 (fixed effect OR= 1.05, 95% CI=0.97,1.13) or for rs8050136 polymorphism (fixed effect OR =1.07, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.16). Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis strengthened our confidence in validity of the association. Conclusion FTO polymorphisms are associated with obesity but not with type 2 diabetes in East Asian populations. Further large-scale studies are required to conclusively establish the association.
Objective To investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water. Methods Bacteria containing kan and amp resistant genes were amplified by PCR and further characterized by colony hybridization and transformation studies. The genus of kan and amp resistant bacteria wasdetermined with standard methods. Results Among the 625 drinking water samples, 400 contained kan and amp resistant bacteria and the percentage was 42.5% and 57.5%, respectively, which was further confirmed by the amplification of a 810 bp kan resistant gene and a 850 bp amp resistant gene. Of the 170 kan resistant bacteria, 90 were Gram negative and 80 were Gram positive. Of the 230 amp resistant bacteria, 160 were Gram negative while 70 were Gram positive.Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and E.coli were detected as 13%, 11%, 17%, 30%, and 29%,respectively. Bacterial strain DH5α transformed with plasmids isolated from kan and amp resistant bacteria confirmed that the antibiotic resistant genes were mediated by plasmids. Conclusion Drinking water is contaminated with kan and amp resistant bacteria due to poor sanitary conditions.
Objective To provide evidence for more accurate diagnosis of birth defects based on the pathoanatomy of congenital malformations. Methods Data used in this study were obtained from Luliang City Hospital and three county hospitals of Shanxi province between February 2004 and March 2006. Autopsy and pathological examination of 160 dead fetuses and stillbirths were performed. Photos of dead fetuses and stillbirths were taken, tissues were cut into sections for pathological examination under microscope, all pathological information was recorded, and percentage of birth defects was calculated.Results The proportion of dead fetuses and stillbirths with or without congenital malformations was 84.4% (135/160) and 15.6% (25/160), respectively. There were 16 categories of major external and internal birth defects in 135 cases of such defects.Congenital heart defects, anencephaly and spina bifida had a higher prevalence rate in the study period. The prevalence rate of non-malformation death and birth defects < 28 gestational weeks and internal anomalies≥ 28 gestational weeks was 14.61% (61/4175) and 17.25% (72/4175), respectively. A total of 413 in situ anomalies were found in 135 cases of autopsy. Spina bifida,anencephaly, congenital heart defects, aplasia or accessory lobe of lung, renal agenesis and dysplasis and congenital hydrocephaly were more closely associated with severe malformations than with mitis malformations. The cases of dead fetuses and stillbirths with multiple malformations (≥ 2 in situ anomalies) had a higher proportion (74.1%), whereas those with isolated malformations had a lower proportion (25.93%). Conclusion The occurrence of congenital malformations in different embryonic developmental stages affects multiple organs. Postmortem examination of internal and multiple malformations of fetal deaths and stillbirths can provide more accurate diagnostic information for birth defects.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of universal salt iodization (USI) for the control of IDD in Hebei province since it was implemented in 1995, identify the problems currently encountered in the implementation of USI and provide practical proposals for addressing these problems. Methods Probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS) was employed in the surveillance of IDD, for which a total of 1200 school children aged 8-10 years were randomly selected from 30 counties around the whole province during each IDD survey. The iodine content of salt was determined quantitatively with the titration method.The iodine content of urinary samples was measured by the method of ammonium persulfate oxidation. Results The coverage of iodized salt increased from 65.0% in 1995 to 98.0% in 1999, then decreased to 88.1% in 2005 which was below the national standard of 90%. The median urinary iodine of children aged 8-10 years varied between 160.1 μg/L and 307.4 μg/L,which was above the national standard. The proportion of urinary samples with iodine content above 300 μg/L was over 30% in 2005, implying exorbitant iodine nutrition among the children. The goiter rate (TGR) among children aged 8-10 years dropped from 11.8% in 1995 to 2.7% in 2005, indicating that the spread of endemic goiter was under control. Conclusion Preliminary elimination of IDD was achieved by USI in Hebei province. Nevertheless, some problems still existed in USI such as non-iodized salt competition, over iodization and un-standardized iodization. In order to address these problems, the management and supervision of salt market needs to be strengthened to prevent non-iedized salt from reaching households;updating equipment and modifying techniques are also necessary to ensure the quality of iodized salt; to clarify the causes of excessive urinary iodine content, the various sources of iodine from the diet need to be investigated in the future.
Objective To investigate the association of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) Pvull polymorphisms with the effect of calcium supplementation on bone development in Chinese pubertal girls, and to study the importance of calcium supplementation by maximizing the peak bone mass at their pubertal stage for bone development and osteoporosis prevention and the role of estrogen in regulating bone mass. Methods Ninety-four pubertal girls were recruited in the study and divided into two groups and three sub-groups according to the ER-α PvuⅡ polymorphisms. One year before and after calcium supplementation, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA, while BGP, BAP, TRACP5b, and 25-OH-VitD_3, as well as estrogen were detected by ELISA. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the effect of ER-α polymorphisms on bone development. Results The absolute increase and percentage change of BGP were significantly higher in the supplemented group than in the control group (P<0.05). In the intervened group, The increase and percentage change of the total body and radio distal 1/3 BMD were higher in PP than in PP genotype (P<0.05), and the increase of BAP in Pp was also higher than PP in the same group (P<0.05). Conclusion PP genotype shows a better response to calcium supplementation than the other Pvull polymorphisms.
Objective To investigate the possible mechanism by which curcumin protects stomach during the acute chronic phase of gastric ulcer disease. Methods The rats were divided into four groups and fasted for 2 days with free access to water. On the third day, the animals were fasted for a further 24 h with no access to water followed by surgery. Rats received different doses of curcumin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral garage. Nineteen hours after ulcer induction, the rats were killed by decapitation. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature and ulcerative lesions were counted. Total juice acidity,neutrophils activity, mitochondrial activity, total antioxidants, paraoxonase (PON 1)/arylesterase and total peroxides were evaluated. DNA fragmentation (%) and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 level were measured. The level of different gastro-cytoprotective effectors including total antioxidants and paraoxonase (PON l)/arylesterase activities was measured.Results The anti-ulcer activity of curcumin was displayed by attenuating the different ulcerative effectors including gastric acid hyper-secretion, total peroxides, myeloperoxiase (MPO) activity, IL-6 and apoptotic incidence. Conclusion Curcumin appears to have a propitious protective effect against gastric ulcer development.
Objective To study the feasibility of using tetracysteine (TC) reporter in gene therapy. Methods Effects of TC reporter and conventional reporter genes encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) and luciferase (Luc) on expression and function of the therapeutic gene MGMT~(P140K) were compared. Cytotoxicity and drug resistance were studied by Western blot. TC reporter used in therapy was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Results The TC reporter had no toxicity to cells and neither affected the expression or activity of therapeutic gene as compared to GFP and Luc. TC could be used in blood sample detection. Conclusion TC is a new kind of reporter gene for lentiviral vector in future gene therapy.
Objective To evaluate the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) during its incubation period by investigating chains of transmission and individuals isolated for medical observation with a view to providing scientific evidence for updating protocols of medical isolation. Methods Individuals related with the two SARS chains of transmission in Beijing in 2003 and a group of individuals isolated for medical observation in Haidian district of Beijing during the SARS outbreak were selected as subjects of study. Contactors with SARS patients and those with symptom development following the contacts were investigated via questionnaire. Serum samples were collected from super transmitters and tested for SARS-CoV antibody by neutralization test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 1 112contactors were investigated in three surveys. Of them, 669 had a history of close contact with symptomatic SARS patients,101 developed symptoms with a rate of 15.1%, 363 had a history of close contact with patients in their incubation period, none of whom developed symptoms (0%). Serum samples were collected fi'om 32 highly-exposed individuals, of whom 13 developing SARS symptoms after contact had serum samples positive for SARS-CoV antibody. Samples collected from the asymptomatic contactors were all negative for SARS-CoV antibody. Conclusion SAILS cases are infectious only during their symptomatic period and are non-infectious during the incubation period. Isolation for medical observation should be placed for individuals who are in close contact with symptomatic SARS patients. The results of our study are of decisive significance for the Ministry of Health to the definition of SARS close contactor.
Objective To analyze the association between mutation(s) in preS region of HBV and hepatitis B disease progress in Chinese patients with genotype C chronic HBV infection. Methods Ninety-three patients with chronic genotype C HBV infection, including 24 asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 26 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 22 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 21 HCC patients were investigated. Levels of HBV DNA, HBeAg, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate transaminase (AST) were measured. HBV preS region was analyzed by PCR direct sequencing. Results The prevalence of lareS T3098C and T53C mutations of genotype C HBV was significantly higher in LC and HCC patients than ASC and CHB patients. The rate of T3098C mutation in ASC, CHB, LC, and HCC patients were 0.00% (0/24), 3.85% (1/26), 9.09% (2/22),and 30.77% (8/22), respectively (P=-0.0015), while the rate of T53C mutation was 12.50% (3/24), 3.85% (1/26), 40.91% (9/22),and 42.31% (11/26), respectively (P=0.0012). Conclusion The frequency of genotype C HBV preS T3098C and T53Cmutations is associated with hepatitis B infection progression.
Objective To study the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on bone metabolism of mice in vivo. Methods Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups (n=8). The whole-body of mice in experimental groups were exposed to 50 kV/m and 400kV/m EMP, 400 pulses daily for 7 consecutive days at 2 seconds intervals. Alkaline phosphotase (ALP) activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, %) were measured immediately after EMP exposure by biochemical, ELISA and morphological methods. Results The ALP activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and BV/TV in experimental groups remained unchanged after EMP exposure. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect bone metabolism of mice in vivo.
Objective To characterize the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -specific T lymphocyte responses and identify the immunodominant regions in Chinese HIV-1 recombinant subtype B/C chronic infectors at complete genome level.Methods Twenty-five HIV-1 B/C recombinant chronic infectors were screened for their specific T lymphocyte responses to a panel of peptides corresponding to the complete HIV-1 subtype B genome by gamma interferon ELISPOT assay.Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance was used to test significant differences across gene regions, and Tukey pairwise analysis was used to identify differences between gene regions. Spearman rank correlation was used to assess the relation between responses. Results The order of recognized frequencies of specific T lymphocyte responses to HIV proteins was Nef>Vpr>Gag>Pol>Vpu>Env>Rev>Vif>Tat. When adjusted for protein length, Nef, Vpr, Gag, and Pol were the most intensely targeted proteins and the central region of Nef, Gag p24, Pol RT, and Vpr was most frequently recognized. No significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of IFN-γ production of HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses and plasma viremia, breadth of response and CD_4 counts. Conclusion The central region of Nef,Gag p24, Pol RT, and Vpr is most frequently targeted in HIV-1 B/C recombinants chronic infectors. HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses and plasma viremia or CD_4 counts play no protective role at complete genome level in these infectors.