2011 Vol. 24, No. 1
Physical Growth of Children in Urban, Suburban and Rural Mainland China: A Study of 20 Years' Change
2011, 24(1): 1-11. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.001
Objective To describe secular trends on physical growth of children in China during the year of 1985-2005 and to analyze the urban-suburban-rural difference and its change.Methods The measurements of height, weight and chest circumference obtained from two serial national cross-sectional surveys for children aged 0 to 7 years in China were used to analyze the secular trends, and the growth differences among urban, suburban and rural children were compared.Results The average weight and height for both boys and girls from urban, suburban and rural areas have significantly increased in most age groups during the past 20 years; The average chest circumference increased slightly, ranging from 0.0 to 2.0 cm. From 1985 to 2005, the urban-suburban difference in height had become smaller, and that in weight showed similar trend for children under 3years old but became larger after 3 years old; the suburban-rural difference both in height and weight became larger after 6 months old. The increment per decade in height was the greatest in the suburban group while the greatest increment in weight was the urban group.Conclusion Positive secular trends were observed among urban, suburban and rural areas in Chinese children under 7 years old during the 1980s and the 2000s, reflecting a rapid socio-economic development in China.
2011, 24(1): 12-21. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.002
Objective To explore the role of adipokines including insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 (C3) in various types of obesity (peripheral obesity,abdominal obesity and mixed obesity) in Chinese children and adolescents, and their relationships with body size and pubertal development.Methods Children and adolescents (n=3 508) aged 6 to 18 years, with 1 788 boys and 1 720 girls were assessed for body mass index, waist circumference, pubertal development, blood insulin, resistin, leptin,adiponectin, ASP and C3 levels. Three types of obesity [peripheral obesity (n=43), abdominal obesity (n=473), mixed obesity (n=1 187)] and non-obese control (n=1 805) were defined with combined use of Chinese body mass index and waist circumference criteria.Results Serum resistin, leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in girls than those in boys (all P＜0.01). Insulin and leptin increased and adiponectin decreased across five Tanner stages in both girls and boys (all P＜0.001), while ASP changed only in girls (P＜0.001) and C3 only in boys (P＜0.001). Insulin,leptin and ASP were higher, but adiponectin was lower in all three types of obesity vs. the non-obese control (all P＜0.05). The greatest abnormalities of all six adipokines were found in the mixed obesity group. With inclusion of body mass index and waist circumference in simultaneous regression analyses,both body size indices were independently and significantly correlated with insulin, leptin and adiponectin after age and gender adjustment. Compared with waist circumference, the body mass index was stronger in interpreting insulin, leptin, adiponectin and ASP levels, whereas it was weaker in explaining variance of plasma C3.Conclusions Obese children have a worse metabolic profile with high insulin, resistin, leptin, ASP and C3, and low adiponectin levels. The adipokine profile in mixed obesity is worse than that in peripheral or abdominal obesity. Identification of obese subjects with a malignant adipokine profile using a combination of body mass index and waist circumference is important for the prevention of obesity-related disease.
Impacts of Types and Degree of Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Dyslipidemia in Chinese School-Age Children?
2011, 24(1): 22-30. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.003
Objective To explore the impacts of types and degree of obesity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and related lipids disturbance in Chinese school-age children.Methods A total of 1 452 school-age Children of 7 to 17 years were recruited in Beijing with representative cluster sampling method. Data of anthropometric measurements including weight,height and waist circumference were collected from March to May of 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Blood samples were obtained and lipid profiles including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured, while glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST)were determined to evaluate liver function. The liver was also scanned by sonography, and abnormal hepatic sonograms were documented. NAFLD was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the Fatty Liver and Alcoholic Liver Disease Study Group under the Chinese Liver Disease Association.Analysis of covariance (ANOVA), Chi-square test for trend and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Results The dyslipidemia and ultrasonographic fatty liver deteriorated with the degree of obesity defined either by BMI or waist circumference. Compared with BMI, waist circumference contributed more to the development of dyslipidemia, fatty liver and NAFLD. The highest levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and lowest level of HDL-C were seen in the mixed obese group followed by abdominal obese, peripheral obese and non-obese ones. Adjusted for gender and age, the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95%confidence intervals of peripheral obesity, abdominal obesity and mixed obesity were 0, 10.93(0.98-121.96) and 79.16 (10.95-572.44) for predicting NAFLD; 12.61 (1.24-127.78), 19.39 (5.23-71.85),and 93.21 (29.56-293.90) for predicting ultrasonographic fatty liver; 1.78 (0.59-5.44), 3.01 (1.91-4.77),and 4.64 (3.52-6.12) for predicting dyslipidemia, respectively compared with the non-obese control group. The trend of hazards over groups was statistically significant (P＜0.01).Conclusion The levels of lipid profile and the prevalence of NAFLD and dyslipidemia increased in parallel with the degree of obesity; As compared with the non-obese control, the mixed obesity had the strongest association with NAFLD and dyslipidemia, followed by abdominal obesity and peripheral obesity in Chinese school-age Children.
2011, 24(1): 31-39. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.004
Objective To investigate the associations of hormone circulation with phthalate exposure in adult men.Methods Semen and serum samples were collected from 118 men who were suspected of infertility.Phthalate diesters including dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in both semen and serum samples were measured, along with serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL).Results Serum PRL was positively associated with serum DBP and DEHP and semen DEHP in all models of Spearman correlation, linear regression and binary logistic regression. In linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders and excluding subjects with undetectable phthalates, a 10-fold increase in semen DEHP was associated with a 23% increase in serum PRL, as well as a 26% increase in serum DBP and a 20% increase in serum DEHP. In logistic regression models all subjects demonstrated a dose-response relationship between above reference value PRL and semen DEHP (odds ratio per tertile adjusted for potential confounders = 1.0, 1.70, 3.50; Pfor trend = 0.01), and serum DBP (1.0, 1.10, 2.62;P for trend = 0.04), and serum DEHP (1.0, 1.46, 4.69; P for trend ＜ 0.01). A positive correlation between serum estradiol and semen DEHP (linear regression), and an inverse correlation between semen DBP and serum testosterone and T:E2 ratio (Spearman correlation) were also established.Conclusions Serum PRL is suggested to be positively associated with both DBP and DEHP exposure in adult men.