Background: Unhygienic blood collection in the early 1990s led to blood-borne infections in Central China. This study aimed to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection with hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV and HBV) and their risk factors in a rural area of Shanxi Province with a history of commercial blood donation.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. All adult residents in the target area were invited to participate in the study. Face-to-face interviews were completed and blood specimens were tested for HIV, HCV, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg).Results: Prevalence rates of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 1.3% (40/3 062), 12.7% (389/3 062), and 3.5% (103/2982), respectively. Of the 40 HIV-positive specimens, 85% were HCV positive and 2.5% were HBsAg positive. The history of commercial blood donation was positively associated with HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, but was negatively associated with HBsAg seropositivity. Migration for employment in the last 5 years was positively related to HIV, HBsAg, and HIV/HCV co-infections. Univariate logistic analysis showed that illegal drug use, number of sex partners, extramarital sex behavior, commercial sex behavior, and condom use rate were not related to anti-HIV, anti-HCV, HBsAg seropositivity or their co-infections.Conclusion: The history of commercial blood donation was the main risk factor for HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections in this former commercial blood donation area. HIV and HCV prevention and treatment interventions are important in this area.
Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) since several outbreaks of HFMD caused by enteroviruses were documented in China between 2007 and 2008.Methods HFMD cases reported to the National Infectious Disease Information Management System database between May 2008 and April 2009 were assessed. Clinical features in some of the severe and fatal cases were analyzed the etiology of the outbreaks was investigated.Results 89.1% of reported HFMD cases were found in children<5 year-old with an age-specific incidence rate of 834.1/100 000 in the first year as the notifiable disease in China from May 2008 to April 2009. The incidence, mortality and percentage of severe cases were studied for three regions of China and found to be highest in the central region. The incidence of severe cases and mortality in rural population were significantly higher than those in urban population. Among the laboratory confirmed EV17 positive cases there were 52.6% mild, 83.5% severe, and 96.1% fatal cases. More myoclonic jerks were found in the severe case group than in group that died. Tachypnea, lip purpling, pink foaming and low limb temperature occurred more frequently in the fatal cases than in the severe cases.Conclusion The epidemic of HFMD in China was characterized predominantly by EV71 infections, had relatively high mortality rates especially in the central region, and was most prevalent in young, rural populations.
Objective To investigate the effect of long-term and low-level occupational Mn exposure on the level of uric acid (UA) in human urine.Methods In this study, 65 volunteers were recruited, who were working on welding and foundry work in an plant in Gansu province, China. Additionally, 29 control samples were collected from individuals who did not have any history of excessive Mn exposure. An improved high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed to determine the UA level in human urine. A Spectra AA 220 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to measure the Mn level in the urine.Results The analytical method was validated for concentrations ranging from 3.82-45.84 μg/mL with acceptable accuracy, precision, and recovery. Overall, the UA levels of Mn exposure samples were significantly lower than that of control samples (P<0.05).Conclusion The practical method developed here is suitable for both routine monitoring of UA level in human urine and metabolism research. Long-term and low-level occupational Mn exposure may lead to a lower UA level in urine, and UA might be an indicator of the early stage of manganism.
Objective To investigate the association between quality of life (QOL) and sociodemographic factors, clinical seizure factors, depression and anxiety in patients suffering from epilepsy.Methods We examined 141 consecutive patients with epilepsy (mean age 25.8±9.6, 61.7% male). All patients completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale , WHOQOL-BREF and QOLIE-31(Chinese version). Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to investigate factors impact on QOL.Results The results revealed that scores on two domains of the WHOQOL-BREF (i.e., physical and psychological domains, P<0.05) were significantly lower in the epilepsy group compared with the control group. Multiple regression analyses showed that anxiety, depression and course explained approximately 40% of the variance in patients' QOL. Anxiety was consistently the strongest predictor of lower scores on almost all QOL domains. In addition, the severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with lower scores across many QOL domains.Conclusion Our findings suggest that QOLIE scores might be substantially affected by the presence and severity of anxiety symptoms and, to a lesser degree, of depressive symptoms and prolonged course of illness. In contrast, clinical seizure variables had a weaker association with QOL. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the significance of patients' emotional state and of the role it plays in their QOL.
Objective To investigate the relationships between erythrocyte membrane n-6:n-3 PUFAs ratio and blood lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).Methods The observational study consisted of a population-based cross-sectional study of 456 Chinese and a subsequent 1-year follow-up study of 171 subjects with the fasting plasma total cholesterol of 5.13-8.00 mmol/L.Results In the cross-sectional analysis, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) had a significant and negative association with the erythrocyte membrane n-6:n-3 PUFAs ratio (P for trend=0.019) after adjusting for sex, age and total PUFA percentage. In the follow-up study, 171 subjects were categorized into quartiles by the changes of n-6:n-3 ratio in erythrocyte membrane (△=month 12-month 0). In the top quartile whose ratios of n-6:n-3 increased by an average of 1.25 during the follow-up, the LDL-c-lowering extent was 3.3 times of that in the lowest quartile whose ratios of n-6:n-3 decreased by an average of 1.13 (-1.07 mmol/L v.s. -0.32 mmol/L). The hsCRP decreased by 0.11 mg/dL in the lowest quartile while increasing by 0.10 mg/dL in the top quartile (P for difference=0.052).Conclusion Our results suggested that the balance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids may optimize the cardiovascular benefits from dietary PUFAs.
Objective To investigate the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women with different FokI vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes (FF, Ff, and ff) after weaning or resumption of menstruation during lactation.Methods A total of 40 subjects with the same FokI VDR genotype were randomly divided into two groups: one received calcium tablet (600 mg once daily as CaCO3) and the other placebo tablet once daily for 1 year. At baseline, BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (L2-L4) and at left hip whereas serum PICP, serum OC, and urinary CTX, serum 25(OH)VitD3, and serum estradiol were measured at weaning and 1 year thereafter.Results After the intervention, BMD at lumbar spine and at left hip increased significantly in all these women with a trend among different FokI VDR genotypes such as FF > Ff > ff (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.001, respectively). BMD at lumbar spine in women with FF VDR genotype increased much more rapidly than in those with ff VDR genotype (P<0.05). Compared with the control group women with the FF genotype regained more BMD after calcium supplementation (P<0.05).Conclusion Daily calcium 600 mg supplementation has beneficial effect on the bone health of women with FF VDR genotype.
Objective To compare the differences in stroke volume (SV) and stroke volume index (SI) between Han and Korean-Chinese and to investigate the correlated risk factors.Methods A total of 1 647 Han and 876 Korean-Chinese aged 10-80 years were investigated. SV, SI, cardiac output, cardiac output index, heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and blood pressure were measured.Results SV/SI values in Korean-Chinese were lower than those in the Han of the same sex and age. Covariance analysis showed that, apart from the effect of sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the differences in SV and SI between the two cohorts were still significant (P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the SV difference between the two ethnicities was affected (in descending order from a strong to weak correlation) by SVR, SVRI, HR, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, BMI, and systolic blood pressure, while the SI difference was affected by SVR, SVRI, HR, mean arterial pressure, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and BMI.Conclusion The Fact that SV and SI in Korean-Chinese are lower than those in Han is related with higher SVR, HR and blood pressure in the Korean-Chinese.
Objective To investigate the kinetic rate constants ozone and hydroxyl radicals towards two groups of antimicrobials -sulfadiazine (SD) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX).Methods The solute consumption method was used to detect the rate constants of ozone alone with sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole, and tertiary butanol was selected as a scavenging agent and pH was adjusted to 2.5 by adding orthophosphate buffers (OB); and the competition kinetics studying methodwith nitrobenzene as a reference was applied to measure the rate constants of hydroxyl radicals towards sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole, and pH was adjusted to 7.0 by adding OB.Results The rate constants of SD and SMX with ozone alone were 261 mol-1 · dm3 · s-1 and 303 mol-1· dm3 · s-1 by calculating in low reaction system. The rate constants of hydroxyl radicals with SD and SMX were 2.2×1010 mol-1 · dm3 · s-1 and 2.7×1010 mol-1 · dm3 · s-1, respectively. Moreover, the rate constants of hydroxyl radicals with SMX were found to have increased from 3.6×109 mol-1 · dm3 · s-1 to 2.8×1010 mol-1 · dm3 · s-1 with pH value rising from 5.0 to 7.8.Conclusion SMX and SD are both refractory to ozone oxidation alone, and are liable to be degraded by hydroxyl radicals, and the rate constants of SMX with the hydroxyl radical slightly increases with pH rise.
Objective In this study, we examined the biodegradation of Dichloroethylene (DCE) by two strains of aerobic bacteria.Methods Using batch experiments, we measured the biodegradation rates of DCE and the residual concentrations of DCE for each bacterial strain. The varying trends in biodegradation rates with different initial concentrations of DCE were fitted to kinetic models.Results The biodegradation kinetics of DCE by the strain DT-X, which uses toluene as co-metabolic substrate, fitted the Monod model (corresponding parameters: vmax=0.0075 h-1, Ks=2.12 mg/L). The biodegradation kinetics of DCE by the strain DT-M, which uses 1,1-Dichloroethylene as single substrate, fitted the Haldane model (parameters: vmax =0.0046 h-1, Ks=4.25 mg/L, ki=8.47 mg/L).Conclusion The substrate removal rate constant of 1,1-Dichloroethylene of the co-metabolic strain DT-X was much higher than that of strain DT-M. The substrate removal rates obtained from both bacterial strains in this study were higher than those reported in similar studies.
Objective This study aimed to explore the roles of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the X-ray repair cross-complementing group-1 gene (XRCC1) and of life style factors and their possible interactions in the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China.Methods A population-based case-control study of 432 cases and 915 controls was conducted in Yangzhong County, Jiangsu Province, China. Subjects were interviewed by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire that included questions on demographics and life style. XRCC1 genotypes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of ESCC with XRCC1 polymorphisms and lifestyle-related factors.Results Both the drinking of river water and alcohol intake history were significantly associated with an increased risk of ESCC among men with aORs of 4.20 (95% CI: 2.90-6.07) and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.43-2.89), respectively. For women, the corresponding odds ratios were 8.37 (95% CI: 5.09-13.75) for river water drinking and 12.78 (95% CI: 2.69-60.69) for long-term stored rice intake. After the XRCC1 G28152A polymorphism was adjusted for potential confounders, subjects with GA and AA genotypes had an increased risk for ESCC (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.93-1.56), compared with subjects with a GG genotype, and a positive multiplicative interaction between intake of long-term stored rice and the XRCC1 G28152A polymorphism was observed (P=0.009).Conclusions Our findings suggest that both lifestyle-related factors, including drinking river water, long-term stored rice and alcohol intake, and the XRCC1 G28152A polymorphism were possible risk factors for ESCC, and that the XRCC1 G28152A polymorphism modified the effect of long-term stored rice intake on the risk of ESCC among Chinese people.
Objective To document the investigation and control of an outbreak of gastroenteritis in City G, South China, and provide a reference for preventing future outbreaks.Methods An ambispective cohort study was designed. Attack rate (AR) and relative risks (RR) were calculated to identify the causes of gastroenteritis. Investigations using questionnaires included personal interviews with patients and doctors, reviews of medical records, laboratory examinations of fecal specimens and continuous hygiene monitoring of water samples from the waterworks.Results Overall, 427/71534 (AR=5.97%o) cases were identified between October 31 and November 12 2010. Geographic distribution was highly localized, with 80% of cases occurring in the areas supplied by waterworks-A. Consumption of water provided solely by waterworks-A was found to be associated with illness (RR=8.20, 95 CI%:6.12-10.99) compared with that from waterworks-B. Microbiological analyses confirmed the presence of Norovirus in six of eight fecal samples from symptomatic patients, two water samples from waterworks-A and two sewage samples. After taking effective measures, the hygienic indices of waterworks-A met health criteria again on November 9 and no cases were reported 3 days later.Conclusion The outbreak reported here was caused by drinking tap water contaminated with sewage at the source. Early identification of possible contamination sources and awareness of changes that might negatively impact water quality are important preventive measures to protect public health.
Objective Genistein, a major soy isoflavone metabolite (SIF), inactivates oxidation activity of bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO). Modification of the heme moiety of LPO by nitrogen-containing compounds has been shown to inactivate LPO. In contrast, SIF mediated inactivation of LPO does not involve a heme modification and the mechanism of SIF inhibition is poorly understood.Methods After inactivation of LPO by genistein in the presence of H2O2, trypsin-digested LPO peptide fragments were collected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS to characterize the chemical binding of genistein(s) to LPO.Results The heme moiety of LPO was not modified by genistein. A covalent binding study showed that 3H-genistein bound to LPO with a ratio of～12 to 1. After HPLC analysis and peak collection, trypsin-digested peptide fragments were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The 3H-genistein co-eluted peptide fragments (RT=24 min) were putatively identified as 199IVGYLDEEGVLDQNR214 with two bound genistein molecules or a genistein dimer (2 259 Da), 486TPDNIDIWIGGNAEPMVER504 with two bound genistein molecules or a genistein dimer (2 663 Da), and 161ARWLPAEYEDGLALPFGWTQR182 with three bound genistein molecules or a genistein trimer (3 060 Da). The fragment with a mass of 1 792 Da (RT=36 min) was identified as 132CDENSPYR139 with three genistein molecules or a genistein trimer.Conclusions The results suggest that LPO was inactivated by irreversible covalent binding of genistein or genistein polymers to particular peptide fragments constituting regions of the outward domain. No genistein interaction with the prosthetic heme moiety of LPO was observed.
Objective To construct a HpL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system, and to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion antigen of Leptospira interrogans for sensitive and specific detection of IgM in the serum of patients with leptospirosis.Methods HpL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion genes were constructed using a primer-linking PCR. The target recombinant protein antigens, rLipL32/1, rLipL21, rOmpL1/2 and rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2, were expressed and the purified antigens were then immobilized to the surface of microplate wells for ELISA-based detection of IgM in the sera of leptospirosis patients.Results Of 493 acute leptospirosis patients, 95.7% and 97.8% were positive by rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2-lgM-EUSA using different serum dilutions, which was higher than the rLipL32/1-lgM-ELISA (93.1% and 90.3%), rLipL21-lgM-ELISA (90.3% and 87.0%), and rOmpL1-lgM-ELISA (85.6% and 81.1%) (P<0.01). All IgM-ELISAs tested negative against 56 non-leptospirosis patients with typhoid fever, hemorrhagic fever or dengue fever.Conclusion Trigeminal fusion antigen increases ELISA sensitivity and the rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2-IgM-EUSA is a sensitive and specific serological diagnostic method for clinical leptospirosis.
Objective Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is an important metabolizing enzyme involved in oxidative stress responses to benzene, a chemical associated with bone marrow toxicity and leukemia. We aimed to identify the CYP2E1 genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to benzene toxicity in support of environmental and occupational exposure prevention, and to test whether a model using immortal human lymphocytes might be an efficient tool for detecting genetic biomarkers.Methods Immortalized human lymphocyte cell lines with independent genotypes on four CYP2E1 SNP sites were induced with 0.01% phenol, a metabolite of benzene. CYP2E1 gene function was evaluated by mRNA expression and enzyme activity. DNA damage was measured by Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE).Results Among the four SNPs, cells with rs2070673TT and rs2030920CC showed higher levels of CYP2E1 transcription and enzymatic activity than the other genotypes in the same SNP site. Cells with higher gene expression genotypes also showed higher comet rates compared with lower gene expression genotypes.Conclusion These results suggest that CYP2E1 rs2070673 and rs2030920 might be the genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to benzene toxicity and that the immortalized human lymphocytes model might be an efficient tool for the detection of genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to chemicals.
Objective To study the types of subspecies of Francisella tularensis from China and to investigate the genetic relationships between F. tularensis strains from China and from other countries.Methods Ten strains of F. tularensis isolated from China were amplified by using typing primers C1/C4 and RD1. On the basis of the lengths of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, it was concluded that these strains of F. tularensis belonged to the same subspecies. At the same time, the fopA, tul4, and 16S rRNA genes of the 10 strains were amplified, and a three-gene based phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software version 4.0.Results The 10 strains of F. tularensis from China were all identified as belonging to subspecies holarctica (type B). We found no direct relationship between the genotypes of F. tularensis subsp.holarctica and the geographical area from where they were isolated.Conclusion The F. tularensis strains isolated from North China mainly belong to subspecies holarctica (type B). The strains of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica from China may have evolved earlier than those from Europe and North America.
Objective Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent globally and sheep are an important zoonotic reservoir. Little data regarding the rates of Cryptosporidium infections in ovines in China are available. This study assessed the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned ovines from Aba Tibetan and Qjang Autonomous Prefecture in the Sichuan province of China.Methods A total of 213 fecal samples were collected from pre-weaned ovines and were examined microscopically (following modified acid fast staining). In addition, 18S rRNA genetic sequences were amplified from fecal samples by nested PCR and phylogenetically analyzed.Results The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the collected samples was at 14.6% (31/213) and four isolates identified by PCR belonged to the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype (Cryptosporidium ubiquitum) demonstrating that this species was the primary sheep species found in sheep in China.Conclusion The present study suggested that the high incidence of Cryptosporidium in sheep poses a significant public health threat and that surveillance practices must be established to prevent zoonotic disease of humans.