2011 Vol. 24, No. 5
Earlier Menarche Can Be an Indicator of More Body Fat: Study of Sexual Development and Waist Circumference in Chinese Girls
2011, 24(5): 451-458. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.001
Objective This paper aims to study the relationship between body fat and sexual development in Chinese girls with different waist circumference.Methods Six thousand one hundred and fifty six girls aged 6-19 were sampled.Their body weight,height,waist circumference,percentage of body fat and secondary sex characteristics were measured.All the subjects were divided into three groups:low class waist circumference,moderate class waist circumference and high class waist circumference.The menarche percentages were analyzed by using the status method.The menarche ages were analyzed by using the retrospective method.Estimates for mean age at entry into a pubertal stage and menarche were calculated by a probit analysis.Results The incidences of moderate class and high class waist circumstance were 20.94％ and 25.27％,respectively.The sexual development of the former was earlier than that of the latter.The percentages of the menarche were detected as high class＞moderate class＞low class.The menarche ages were expressed as high class＜moderate class＜low class.Conclusion A close association is found between the waist circumference and sexual development,especially the menarche age.Girls with high class waist circumference are more vulnerable to earlier menarche and excess body fat.It is important to control the occurrence of central obesity through monitoring the change of waist circumference in puberty for girls' health.
2011, 24(5): 459-466. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.002
Objective To assess and compare the predictive effects of hypertension before puberty and during puberty on adult hypertension.Methods A total of 412 adults from the "Beijing children and adolescents blood pressure (BP) study" cohort were followed up in a clinical examination in 2005.Systolic and diastolic BP,height,and weight in childhood were measured at a baseline survey in 1987.The participants were divided into pre-puberty and puberty sub-cohorts according to their pubertal development stage at baseline.Information on adult BP,anthropometric indices and life style were collected through questionnaire and physical examination.BP changes and the predictive effect on adult hypertension were compared between the two sub-cohorts.Correlation of BP levels between 1987 and 2005 was examined through linear regression models.Results From childhood to adulthood,the regression coefficients of systolic BP were similar in the two sub-cohorts (both β=0.34,P＜0.001),while the coefficient of diastolic BP was larger in the pubertal cohort (β=0.31,P＜0.001) compared with the pre-pubertal cohort (β=0.12,P=0.017).Fifty percent of children with pubertal hypertension became hypertensive adults,while pre-pubertal hypertension resulted in 34.3％.After adjustment for sex,age,family history of hypertension,obesity in childhood,and adulthood,pubertal hypertension predicted a higher risk of adult hypertension than pre-pubertal hypertension,with odds ratios (95％ confidence intervals) of 10.00 (3.03-33.07) and 2.71 (0.83-8.85),respectively.Conclusion Our results suggest that hypertension during puberty is likely to result in adult hypertension.
2011, 24(5): 467-474. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.003
Objective To evaluate trends of overweight and obesity prevalence between 1996 and 2007 in Yi farmers and Yi migrants.Methods An Yi migrant study was conducted in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,China from 1996 to 2007.Data were collected with identical methods,including standardized questionnaire and body measurements.Results Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from 20.02 in 1996 to 22.36 in 2007,among Yi farmers,which was significantly different from those among Yi migrants (23.67 in 2007 and 20.90 in 1996) (P＜0.05).Prevalence of obesity rose from 1.21％ in 1996 to 4.55 ％ in 2007 (OR=1.15,P＜0.001) in Yi migrants,while that in Yi farmers from none in 1996 to 0.12 ％ in 2007 (P＞0.05).Prevalence of overweight rose significantly to 26.24 ％ in 2007 from 17.24 ％ in 1996 (OR=1.06,P＜0.001) in Yi migrants,while that in Yi farmers from 1.29 ％ in 1996 to 4.45 ％ in 2007 (OR=1.14,P＜0.001).Yi migrants appeared to have a 5.52-fold higher risk on developing overweight and obesity than Yi farmers have.Conclusion The Yi migrants had a steeper increase of overweight with year and consequently caused more obesity.Change in lifestyle may contribute most likely to higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in Yi migrants.
Cigarette Smoking Increases Risk for Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Men-Shanghai Diabetes Study
2011, 24(5): 475-482. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.004
Objective To determine whether smoking increases the risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese men.Methods A total of 693 men with no MetS at baseline were followed for 2.9-5.5 years.Subjects were divided into nonsmokers,ex-smokers,and current smokers according to baseline smoking status.Results After adjusting for age,education level,alcohol intake,fasting plasma insulin,HOMA-IR index,and BMI at baseline and weight change,current smokers were dose-dependently associated with increased risk for developing new MetS compared with nonsmokers.The odds ratio (OR) was 2.131 (95％ CI,1.264,3.592; P＜0.01) for the NCEPIII definition or 3.083 (95％ CI,1.807,5.295; P＜0.01) for the JCDCG definition of MetS.Ex-smokers who had quit for ≥13 years significantly decreased the risk for developing new MetS defined by the JCDCG definition.Compared with nonsmokers,current smokers were significantly associated with increased incidence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C.Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for developing MetS in Chinese men after adjusting for age,education level,alcohol intake,fasting plasma insulin,HOMA-IR,BMI,and weight change.This could be due to an increased incidence of dyslipidemia.Smoking cessation for ＞13 years decreased the risk for developing MetS defined by the JCDCG definition.
2011, 24(5): 483-490. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.005
Objective To identify the mortality and epidemiological pattern of dementia and its various major subtypes among urban and rural senior residents in Beijing.Methods Based on Beijing's dementia prevalence survey among residents aged 55 years and above in 1997,respondents were selected by stratified multiple-stage cluster sampling and 12 urban communities and 17 rural village communities were randomly sampled then follow-up in 2001.COX regression was used to analyze relative risks controlling confounding factors on deaths of dementia cases.Results The mortality of dement patients in the 55-64 age-group was 0.82/100 person-year.The age-standardized mortality of dement cases was 0.90/100 person-year.The mortality in the 65 and above age-group was 1.44/100 person-year,and the age-standardized mortality was 1.56/100 person-year.Among AD cases,the above two mortalities were 0.35/100 and 0.42/100 person-year respectively,and among VaD cases,0.34/100 and 0.36/100 person-year respectively.For both AD and VaD cases,their mortality increased with age.Region,gender and age were more significant to survival of AD cases.Conclusion One major subtype of dementia,AD,among elderly urban and rural residents in Beijing,has a different mortality and epidemiological pattern from VaD.
Human GSTs Polymorphisms in the Hakka Population of South China and Their Associations with Family History of Several Chronic Diseases
2011, 24(5): 491-498. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.006
Objective To investigate the associations of genetic polymorphisms in GSTs genes of the Hakka population of south China with family histories of certain chronic diseases.Methods Five hundred and thirty-nine healthy Hakka natives of Meizhou city of Guangdong province in south China were involved.The genotypes of GSTM1,GSTT1,GSTP1,GSTM3,and GSTA1 were determined using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The observed polymorphisms were analyzed by Chi-square and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests.Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of the distributions of GST genotypes with family history of certain chronic diseases.Results The distributions of polymorphisms in GSTP1,GSTM3,and GSTA1 conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Compared to the Cantonese,the Hakka had a lower distribution of the GSTM3 deletion genotype (3.15％ vs.11.9％).A weak association was observed between the GSTM1 genetic polymorphism and family history of hypertension.Alcohol drinkers had a higher frequency of the null-GSTM1 genotype,while smokers had a higher frequency of a variant GSTP1 genotype.Conclusion The results suggest that the Hakka is a special and distinctive Han Chinese ethnic group with different GSTs genetic polymorphisms.Smoking and drinking might be related to the distribution of GST genotypes.