2014 Vol. 27, No. 11
Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011).
Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P<0.05). Between-age differences were significant for SO2 (P<0.05), and between-season differences were also significant for SO2 (P<0.05).
Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.
Methods PCR was used to detect HBoV1-DNA (HBoV1) and other viruses. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore possibility of co-detected for related viruses.
Results The positivity rates in Nanjing and Lanzhou were 9.38% (74/789) and 11.62% (161/1386), respectively (P>0.05). The HBoV1 positive group was younger than negative group (P<0.05). Seasonal differences were noted, with a higher frequency of infection in December and July. HBoV1-positive children [72.34% (169/235)] were co-infected with other respiratory viruses. Multifactorial analysis showed no correlations between HBoV1 and the clinical classification, region, gender, age, or treatment as an outpatient or in a hospital. Correlations were identified between HBoV1 infections with ADV (OR=1.53, 95%CI 1.03-2.28), RSV (OR=0.71, 95%CI 0.52-0.98), and IFVA (OR=1.77, 95%CI 1.00-3.13).
Conclusions Presence of HBoV1 in nasopharyngeal aspirates did not correlate with region or gender, although the prevalence of HBoV1 was higher in younger children. There were no correlations between HBoV1 and other variables, except for the season and ADV, RSV, or IFVA infections.
Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence.
Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%.
Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.
Methods We searched five electronic databases (Wanfang, CNKI, CQVIP, SinoMed, and Pubmed) for studies of HIV drug resistance. Random-effects models were carried out to estimate the prevalence of drug resistance among treatment-failure and treatment-na?ve individuals, respectively.
Results The estimated nationwide rates of HIV drug resistance to any-class drugs among treatment-failure and treatment-na?ve individuals were 57% (95% CI: 49%-65%) and 3.23% (95% CI:2.47%-4.07%), respectively. Among the drug classes, the prevalence of resistance to PIs was low (1.45%;95%CI:0.73%-2.33%) in treatment-failure individuals, although high rates of resistance to NNRTIs (54%;95%CI:45%-63%) and NRTIs (40%;95%CI:32%-49%) were found. Resistance to any-class drugs, NNRTIs and NRTIs manifested regional differences, but resistance to PIs did not. Positive correlations were observed between resistance to NNRTIs and NRTIs among treatment-failure and treatment-na?ve individuals, respectively.
Conclusion The prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTIs and NRTIs among treatment-failure individuals was high. In contrast, the prevalence of drug resistance among treatment-na?ve individuals was low. The epidemics of drug resistance matched current treatment strategies and interventions in China. Surveillance for HIV drug resistance is necessary to assess the sustainability and durability of current treatment regimens.
Methods A total of 80 research papers published from January 2001 to October 2013 were selected. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in mapping PBDE concentrations and distributions in environmental media. Ni’s model was applied to calculate∑PBDE-intake via the intakes of contaminated food, water and air in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta.
Results BDE-209 was found to be the major PBDE congener in the environmental media and food in China. PBDE concentrations varied among different areas, among which the contamination in Guangdong Province was most serious. Daily intake of∑PBDEs was 225.1-446.0 ng/d for adults in the Pearl River Delta, which was higher than the intake for those living in the Yangtze River Delta (148.9-369.8 ng/d).
Conclusion PBDEs are ubiquitous in the environment of China. The estimated PBDEs daily dietary intake is comparable with that in European countries.
Methods The yeast two hybrid system, His-tag pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to confirm the interaction of TgPP2C with SSRP1 and determine the binding domain on SSRP1. The evaluation of cell apoptosis was performed using cleaved caspase-3 antibody and Annexin-V/PI kit combined with flow cytometry.
Results We identified human SSRP1 as an interacting partner of TgPP2C. The C-terminal region of SSRP1 including the amino acids 471 to 538 was specifically mapped as the region responsible for interaction with TgPP2C. The overexpression of TgPP2C down-regulated cell apoptosis and negatively regulated apoptosis induced by DRB, casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, through enhanced interaction with SSRP1.
Conclusion TgPP2C may be a parasitic factor capable of promoting cell survival through interaction with the host protein SSRP1, thereby creating a favorable environment for parasite growth.