2014 Vol. 27, No. 6
Methods A total of 200 female mice weighing 18-22 g were randomly divided into four clusters based on body weight, and each weight-based cluster included five groups (10 mice per group): negative control, positive control (cyclophosphamide), low, intermediate, and high dose ACR groups, and all the groups were administered ACR by gavage for 30 days. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the ACR were evaluated through immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and non-specific immunity.
Results The terminal body weight, spleen and thymus weights, lymphocyte counts in the ACR-H group were decreased, pathological changes were observed in lymph glands, thymus and spleen.%T cells in blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in all ACR-treated groups, and a significant reduction of% natural killer(NK) cells and increase of %Th cells were observed in the ACR-H group. interleukin-6(IL-6), Concanavalin A(ConA)-induced splenocyte proliferation and serum half hemolysis value (HC50) were also significantly suppressed in the ACR-H group.
Conclusion ACR elicited an inhibitory effect on cellular and humoral immunity of mice after 30 day feeding.
Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, IR group, IR+Sodium Hydrosulphide (NaHS) group and IR+DL-propargylglycine (PPG) group. IR group as lung injury model induced by LIR were given 4 h reperfusion following 4 h ischemia of bilateral hindlimbs with rubber bands. NaHS (0.78 mg/kg) as exogenous H2S donor and PPG (60 mg/kg) which can suppress endogenous H2S production were administrated before LIR, respectively. The lungs were removed for histologic analysis, the determination of wet-to-dry weight ratios and the measurement of mRNA and protein levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), aquaporin-5 (AQP5) as indexes of water transport abnormality, and mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) and p-NF-κB as indexes of inflammation.
Results LIR induced lung injury was accompanied with upregulation of TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and downregulation of AQP1/AQP5. NaHS pre-treatment reduced lung injury with increasing AQP1/AQP5 expression and inhibition of TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB pathway, but PPG adjusted AQP1/AQP5 and TLR4 pathway to the opposite side and exacerbated lung injury.
Conclusion Endogenous H2S, TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and AQP1/AQP5 were involved in LIR induced lung injury. Increased H2S would alleviate lung injury and the effect is at least partially depend on the adjustment of TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB pathway and AQP1/AQP5 expression to reduce inflammatory reaction and lessen pulmonary edema.
Methods 71 workers in two flavoring manufacturers, 27 administrators in those factories and 31 laboratory technicians in a research institute were recruited and assigned to exposure group, control group 1 and control group 2 respectively. Their urinary DEHP metabolites, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), were detected by isotope dilution-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). The urinary metabolites concentrations were converted into DEHP intake levels using two pharmacokinetic models: the urine creatinine-excretion (UCE) one and the urine volume (UV) one.
Results No significant differences were found among the three groups. Based on the urinary concentrations ofΣ3MEHP, we got a median daily DEHP intake of 3.22 or 1.85μg/kg body-weight/day applying the UV or UCE models respectively. Depending on the UV model, three subjects (2.34%) exceeded the RfD value given by US EPA and the P50 of estimate daily DEHP intakes accounted for 16.10%of the RfD value. No subjects exceeded the limitation depending on the UCE model.
Conclusion The workers in flavoring factories were not supposed to be the high DEHP exposure ones and their exposure level remained at a low risk.
Methods Pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in blood and tissues of 30 miniature pigs were studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg bw). Data were processed by 3P97 software.
Results The serum deltamethrin level was significantly lower in tissues than in blood of miniature pigs. The AUC0-72 h, Cmax, of deltamethrin were 555.330±316.987 ng h/mL and 17.861±11.129 ng/mL, respectively. The Tmax, of deltamethrin was 6.004±3.131 h.
Conclusion The metabolism of deltamethrin in miniature pigs is fit for a one-compartment model with a weighting function of 1/C2. Deltamethrin is rapidly hydrolyzed and accumulated in miniature pig tissues.
Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to analyze the changes of the related genes at the transcriptional level, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to determine ArgR binding with the argCJBDF, argGH, and carAB promoter regions, and arginine production was determined with an automated amino acid analyzer.
Results Arginine production assays showed a 69.9%reduction in arginine from 9.01±0.22 mg/mL in C. crenatum MT to 2.71±0.13 mg/mL (P<0.05) in C. crenatum MT. sp. The argC, argB, argD, argF, argJ, argG, and carA genes were down-regulated significantly in C. crenatum MT. sp compared with those in its parental C. crenatum MT strain. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoter regions were directly bound to the ArgR protein.
Conclusion The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR, and intact ArgR in C. crenatum MT results in a significant descrease in arginine production.
Methods A cohort survey among HIV positive female workers was conducted during 12 months, between 2010 and 2012. All the risk sexual behavior and attitude were collected for assessment for the potential secondary transmission to sexual partners.
Results Of 99 HIV positive women who sell sex in Kaiyuan city, 99 participated in the survey at baseline, 80, 80, 75, and 75 at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups. The percentage of participants who reported consistently used condoms in the last one month ranged between 94.5%and 95.5%. The client volume in the last one month, income per sex and age group were significant related with non-insistent condom use with their clients.
Conclusion It was suggested that integrated intervention program package should include 100 percent condom use promotion for the HIV positive FSW with all sexual partners, and also, include socially support involved.
Methods A total of 8 000 children were screened to do a questionnaire based on CHAT modified to include more early signs of autism at the age of 18-36 months. Then the at-risk children were reexamined 1.5 years later and ASD children were identified based on DSM-IV. Early signs of autism were analyzed retrospectively by using discriminant function analysis performed among ASD children, children not followed up and children followed up but failing to meet ASD criteria.
Results Three hundred and sixty seven children were screened as being at-risk to ASD, and 22 of them were identified as having ASD in the subsequent diagnosis. The prevalence of ASD was 27.5 per 10 000 in Tianjin of China with a male to female ratio of 4:1. Items addressing social interactions and communications had higher predictability than other items to distinguish autistic children from non-autistic ones. Pretend play, functional play, showing and reading parents’ facial expressions distinguished autistic children from those not followed up, nevertheless those followed up but failing to meet ASD criteria were not included.
Conclusion The prevalence of ASD found in our study was lower than that reported in some studies by western researchers. Autism has its specific symptoms, such as deficits in social awareness, social relatedness, and social referencing.