2015 Vol. 28, No. 8
Methods ASCs were isolated and cultured in low attachment dishes to form three-dimensional (3D) spheres in vitro. The neuronal differentiation potential and stem-liked characteristics was monitored by using immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry in monolayer and 3D culture. To investigate the irradiation sensitivity of 3D sphere culture, the fraction of colony survival and micronucleus were detected in monolayer and 3D culture. Soft agar assays were performed for measuring malignant transformation for the irradiated monolayer and 3D culture.
Results The 3D cultured ASCs had higher differentiation potential and an higher stem-like cell percentage. The 3D cultures were more radioresistant after either high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam or low LET X-ray irradiation compared with the monolayer cell. The ASCs’ potential of cellular transformation was lower after irradiation by soft agar assay.
Conclusion These findings suggest that adipose tissue cell are relatively genomic stable and resistant to genotoxic stress.
Methods Mice were exposed to whole body 2100 MHz microwaves with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.45 W/kg, 1.8 W/kg, and 3.6 W/kg for 1 hour daily for 8 weeks. Differentially expressing genes in the brains were screened using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, with genes showing more significant differences further confirmed by RT-PCR.
Results The gene chip results demonstrated that 41 genes (0.45 W/kg group), 29 genes (1.8 W/kg group), and 219 genes (3.6 W/kg group) were differentially expressed. GO analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in metabolic processes, cellular metabolic processes, regulation of biological processes, macromolecular metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, cellular protein metabolic processes, transport, developmental processes, cellular component organization, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes are mainly involved in pathways related to ribosome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, long-term potentiation, Huntington's disease, and Neurotrophin signaling. Construction of a protein interaction network identified several important regulatory genes including synbindin (sbdn), Crystallin (CryaB), PPP1CA, Ywhaq, Psap, Psmb1, Pcbp2, etc., which play important roles in the processes of learning and memory.
Conclusion Long-term, low-level microwave exposure may inhibit learning and memory by affecting protein and energy metabolic processes and signaling pathways relating to neurological functions or diseases.
Methods Organic compounds were extracted by XAD-2 resins and eluted with acetone and dichlormethane (DCM). The eluents were evaporated and redissolved with DMSO or DCM. The mutagenicity and estrogenicity of the extracts were assayed with the Ames test and yeast estrogen screen (YES assay), respectively. The organic compounds were detected by GC-MS.
Results The results indicated that the mutation ratio (MR) of organic compounds in source water was higher than that for treated water. GC-MS showed that more than 48 organic compounds were identified in all samples and that treated water had significantly fewer types and concentrations of organic compounds than source water.
Conclusion To different extents, all water treatment processes could reduce both the mutagenicity and estrogenicity, relative to source water. P2, P3, and P5 reduced mutagenicity more effectively, while P1 reduced estrogenicity, most effectively. Water treatment processes in this pilot plant had weak abilities to remove Di-n-butyl phthalate or 1, 2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid.
Methods Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated group, model rats that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL), and BDL rats treated orally with sepia ink extract (200 mg/kg body weight) for 7, 14, and 28 d after BDL.
Results There was a significant reduction in hepatic enzymes, ALP, GGT, bilirubin levels, and oxidative stress in the BDL group after treatment with sepia ink extract. Collagen deposition reduced after sepia ink extract treatment as compared to BDL groups, suggesting that the liver was repaired. Histopathological examination of liver treated with sepia ink extract showed moderate degeneration in the hepatic architecture and mild degeneration in hepatocytes as compared to BDL groups.
Conclusion Sepia ink extract provides a curative effect and an antioxidant capacity on BDL rats and could ameliorate the complications of liver cholestasis.
Methods GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model.
Results Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol,β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels.
Conclusion Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants.