Objective This study examined vegetable and fruit (VF) consumption rate and its associated factors among Chinese adults.Methods Nationally representative data from the 2013 China Chronic Disease Surveillance survey were used. Dietary intake data, including VF consumption during the last 12 months, were collected. All analyses were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates. Associations between VF consumption and other factors (e.g., meal frequency and physical activity) were examined through logistic regression analysis.Results The average fruit consumption was 102.3 g/day (95% CI: 97.0-107.6) and the average vegetable consumption was 350.6 g/day (95% CI: 339.3-361.8). Over half (53.2%, 95% CI: 50.9-55.4) of Chinese adults met the VF consumption of 400 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Rural residents had a higher prevalence of low VF consumption rate than urban residents [49.20% (95% CI: 46.2%-52.2%) vs. 44.0% (95% CI: 41.7%-46.3%) P < 0.01]. Old age (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01), low educational level, low income, minority ethnicity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15-1.74), underweight (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33), single marital status (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.33), low health literacy, irregular breakfast (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.38) or lunch (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.26-1.99) habits, and no leisure-time physical activity were associated with low VF consumption.Conclusion Only half of Chinese adults met the VF consumption recommended by the WHO. Low socio-economic status, irregular diet, and poor health literacy were likely associated with low VF consumption. National efforts and programs are needed to promote VF consumption.
Objective To research a protein chip method which can simultaneously quantitative detect β-Lactoglobulin (β-L) and Lactoferrin (Lf) at one time.Methods Protein chip printer was used to print both anti-β-L antibodies and anti-Lf antibodies on each block of protein chip. And then an improved sandwich detection method was applied while the other two detecting antibodies for the two antigens were added in the block after they were mixed. The detection conditions of the quantitative detection for simultaneous measurement of β-L and Lf with protein chip were optimized and evaluated. Based on these detected conditions, two standard curves of the two proteins were simultaneously established on one protein chip. Finally, the new detection method was evaluated by using the analysis of precision and accuracy.Results By comparison experiment, mouse monoclonal antibodies of the two antigens were chosen as the printing probe. The concentrations of β-L and Lf probes were 0.5 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, while the titers of detection antibodies both of β-L and Lf were 1:2, 000. Intra-and inter-assay variability was between 4.88% and 38.33% for all tests. The regression coefficients of protein chip comparing with ELISA for β-L and Lf were better than 0.734, and both of the two regression coefficients were statistically significant (r= 0.734, t= 2.644, P= 0.038; and r= 0.774, t= 2.998, P= 0.024).Conclusion A protein chip method of simultaneously quantitative detection for β-L and Lf has been established and this method is worthy in further application.
Objective To examine the association of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in northern China.Methods The dietary intakes of pregnant women were recorded twice by 24-hour dietary recalls for three days prior to having been diagnosed with GDM, at 5-15 and 24-28 gestational weeks, respectively. GDM was diagnosed, and serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured at 24-28 weeks. Dietary patterns were assessed by factor analysis. The association of the dietary pattern with GDM and HbA1c was examined by multiple logistic models.Results Of 753 participants, 64 (8.5%) were diagnosed with GDM. Four dietary patterns were identified: Western pattern (dairy, baked/fried food and white meat), traditional pattern (light-colored vegetables, fine grain, red meat and tubers), mixed pattern (edible fungi, shrimp/shellfish and red meat) and prudent pattern (dark-colored vegetables and deep-sea fish). Compared with the prudent pattern, both the Western pattern and the traditional pattern were associated with an increased risk of GDM (aOR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.58-12.22; aOR = 4.88, 95% CI: 1.79-13.32) and a high level of HbA1c (aOR = 12.37, 95% CI: 1.47-103.91; aOR = 26.23, 95% CI: 2.54-270.74). Compared to the lowest quartile (Q), Q3 of the Western pattern scores and Q3-Q4 of the traditional pattern scores were associated with a higher risk of GDM.Conclusion The consumption of the Western pattern or the traditional pattern during pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM.
Objective The alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A) polymorphism in individuals modifies the antiplatelet response to sympathetic stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ADRA2A variants on platelet reactivity in Chinese patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods From March 2011 to March 2013, 1, 024 patients were enrolled in this prospective, single-center, observational study in China. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADRA2A gene (rs11195419, rs3750625, rs13306146, and rs553668) and CYP2C19*2 were detected by ligase detection reaction (LDR), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) inhibition was detected by thromboelastography (TEG®).Results The minor allele frequencies of ADRA2A SNPs were common. Platelet ADP inhibition was significantly different among patients carrying rs11195419 (adjusted P = 0.022) and rs3750625 (adjusted P = 0.016). The homozygous allele carriers had the lowest ADP inhibition. However, ADP inhibition was not significantly different in rs553668 and rs13306146. At the multivariate analysis, rs11195419 (P = 0.033), rs3750625 (P = 0.020) and CYP2C19*2 (P = 0.002) were independent predictors of ADP inhibition. Subgroups analysis based on sex showed rs11195419 (P = 0.003) and rs3750625 (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with ADP inhibition in males, but not in females.Conclusion ADRA2A genetic variations were associated with ADP-induced platelet aggregation during DAPT in Chinese patients undergoing PCI, and the effect was particularly more pronounced in males.
To characterize long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and viremia controllers (VCs), infected with HIV-1 through contaminated blood donation or transfusion between 1992 and 1996 in Henan, China. LTNPs and VCs were defined by CD4+T lymphocyte (CD4) count and viral load (VL). Of 29, 294 patients infected with HIV-1 via contaminated blood donation or transfusion that had conducted for more than 20 years, 92 were LTNPs/VCs. There were 70 LTNPs (0.24%), 43 VCs (0.15%), and 48 LTNPs+VCs-(0.16%). VCs had a significantly lower CD4 nadir, compared to LTNPs and LTNPs+VCs-, and no significant differences for the highest VL and HIV-1 DNA. Cases P4 and P5 were LTNPs, while their VL reached approximately 4.3 log copies/mL. P6 was a VC, but with CD4 < 500 cells/μL constantly. Data from the LTNPs/VCs cohort provided valuable information, future research is needed.
To evaluate the HIV pandemic in Chongqing, the pooled PCR, IgG-capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA), and cohort observations were used to estimate the HIV incidences among men who have sex with men (MSM). 617 MSM subjects completed the survey at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) site. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 P-Ys (95% CI = 9.1-15.7). The annual acute HIV infection (AHI) incidence estimated by pooled PCR was 14.0% (95% CI = 10.9-17.1). The HIV-1 annual incidence estimated based on the BED-CEIA was 12.0% (95% CI = 7.5-16.5). The HIV incidences estimated by these three approaches were consistent and complementary. The HIV incidence rates were alarmingly high with an uptrend among the urban MSM of Chongqing.
Case-based surveillance measles data was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 511 measles cases were studied from 2011 to 2015 in Southern Darfur State, Sudan and 58.1% of cases were confirmed from Nyala city. About 43.4% of cases were males, 56.6% of cases were female, and 47.7% were children under five years old. Similarity, within February to June, the cases increased by 8.0% in children vaccinated through measles campaign, and 5.3% in children that used child vaccination card and 78.7% in unvaccinated one. The epidemiologically linked (EPI-Linked) measles cases declined from 2011 to 2015; consequently, Measles still remain to be a significant challenge in south Darfur state, Sudan.
Kidney stones are a common urinary system condition that can progress to kidney disease. Previous studies on the association between tea consumption and kidney stones are inconsistent. A cross-sectional study to investigate the association between tea consumption and kidney stones was conducted from 2013 to 2014 and recruited 9, 078 northern Chinese adults. A total of 8, 807 participants were included in the final analysis. Participants' prevalence of kidney stones was 1.07%, 1.73%, and 2.25% based on their tea consumption frequency of never, occasionally, and often groups, respectively. Compared with the 'never' group, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the occurrence of kidney stones were 1.57 (1.00-2.46) and 1.65 (1.06-2.57) in the 'occasionally' and 'often' groups, respectively. After adjusting for sex, age, and other potential confounding factors, tea consumption still significantly increased the risk of kidney stones. Tea consumption is independently associated with an increased risk of kidney stones in the investigated population, suggesting that a decrease in the consumption of tea may be a preventive strategy for kidney stones.
Little information is available about the effects of exposure to pulsed microwaves on neuronal Ca2+ signaling under non-thermal conditions. In this study, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were exposed to pulsed microwaves for 6 min at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg to assess possible real-time effects. During microwave exposure, free calcium dynamics in the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus of cells were monitored by time-lapse microfluorimetry using a genetically encoded calcium indicator (ratiometric-pericam, ratiometric-pericam-mt, and ratiometric-pericam-nu). We established a waveguide-based real-time microwave exposure system under accurately controlled environmental and dosimetric conditions and found no significant changes in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, or nuclear calcium levels in PC12 cells. These findings suggest that no dynamic changes occurred in [Ca2+]c, [Ca2+]m, or [Ca2+]n of PC12 cells at the non-thermal level.
Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy has an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function but the mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, our aim was to study the effect of maternal marginal ID on cerebellar neurodevelopment and the underlying mechanism. After obtaining marginal ID rats, we examined interactions between Bergmann glia cells (BGs) and Purkinje cells (PCs) using immunofluorescence and expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor by western blot. Our results showed that marginal ID reduced the number of contacted points between BGs and PCs, and disturbed expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor. Our results support the hypothesis that marginal ID inhibits interactions of BGs-PCs, which may be involved in abnormal regulation of the glutamate transporter and receptor.
Prolactinoma is an estrogen-related tumor and leukemia-related protein 16 (LRP16) is correlated with the progression of estrogen-related tumors, but the regulatory mechanism between LRP16 and prolactinoma remain unclear. This study demonstrates a variation in LRP16 with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in prolactinoma models and the up and downregulation effects of LRP16 on prolactin secretion of pituitary adenomas cells (GH3 cells). In our study, 50 male SD rats (30-day-old) were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each. After 120 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the expression of LRP16 and ERα were examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry to explore the changes in ERα, LRP16, and prolactin. After siRNA transfection of the respective genes, the GH3 cells were cultured, and their secretory function as well as the expression of ERα mRNA and prolactin were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results show that secretion of prolactin by GH3 cells can be affected by up and downregulating LRP16 expression, which may provide a novel medical therapy in clinical trials.