Objective The aim of this study is to establish whether cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense RNA 1 (CDKN2B-AS1) gene polymorphisms are associated with premature triple-vessel disease (PTVD).Methods Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1063192, rs10757274, rs1333042, rs1333049, rs2285327, rs3217986, rs3217992, rs4977574, and rs9632884) were genotyped in 884 PTVD patients and 907 control subjects (males ≤ 50 years old and females ≤ 60 years old) using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method.Results The allele frequencies of rs10757274 G, rs1333049 C, rs4977574 G (all P < 0.001), and rs3217986 G (P=0.040) were significantly higher in the PTVD group than in the control group, but those of rs1063192 A, rs1333042 G, and rs9632884 C (all P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the former than in the latter. Logistic regression analysis revealed that homozygote AA of rs1333042 is associated with decreased risk for PTVD (OR =0.42, 95% CI:0.22-0.82, P=0.011). In addition, the allele frequencies observed differed between genders. The G allele of rs3217986 was associated with increased risk for PTVD in male patients only (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.27-6.80, P=0.012) in the dominant model, and no positively mutated allele was found in female patients.Conclusion Polymorphisms of the CDKN2B-AS1 gene are associated with the incidence of PTVD in the Chinese population. Furthermore, the frequencies of mutated alleles differed between genders.
Objective To investigate cognitive dysfunction in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and potential risk factors related to cognitive-especially memory-dysfunction.Methods Forty-seven patients with carotid artery stenosis were recruited into our study cohort. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were adopted to assess cognitive function, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) to assess memory function, high-resolution MRI and enhanced ultrasound to evaluate carotid plaques, and computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging to evaluate intracranial blood perfusion. Single-factor analysis and multiple-factor regression analysis were used to analyze potential risk factors of cognitive impairment.Results Mini-Mental State Examination test results showed that 22 patients had cognitive impairment, and MoCA test results showed that 10 patients had cognitive impairment. Analysis of various risk factors indicated that the average memory quotient of female patients was higher than that of males (P=0.024). The cognitive and memory performance of those with an educational background above high school were significantly better than those of participants with high school or lower (P=0.045). Patients with abnormal intracranial perfusion performed worse on the MMSE test (P=0.024), and their WMS scores were significantly lower (P=0.007). The MMSE scores and the memory quotients were significantly lower in patients with a history of cerebral infarction (MMSE, P=0.047, memory quotient score, P=0.018).Conclusion A history of cerebral infarction and abnormal cerebral perfusion are associated with decline in overall cognitive function and memory in patients with carotid stenosis. Being female and having an educational background above high school may be protective factors in the development of cognitive dysfunction.