Objective The aim of this study is to establish whether cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense RNA 1 (CDKN2B-AS1) gene polymorphisms are associated with premature triple-vessel disease (PTVD).Methods Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1063192, rs10757274, rs1333042, rs1333049, rs2285327, rs3217986, rs3217992, rs4977574, and rs9632884) were genotyped in 884 PTVD patients and 907 control subjects (males ≤ 50 years old and females ≤ 60 years old) using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method.Results The allele frequencies of rs10757274 G, rs1333049 C, rs4977574 G (all P < 0.001), and rs3217986 G (P=0.040) were significantly higher in the PTVD group than in the control group, but those of rs1063192 A, rs1333042 G, and rs9632884 C (all P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the former than in the latter. Logistic regression analysis revealed that homozygote AA of rs1333042 is associated with decreased risk for PTVD (OR =0.42, 95% CI:0.22-0.82, P=0.011). In addition, the allele frequencies observed differed between genders. The G allele of rs3217986 was associated with increased risk for PTVD in male patients only (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.27-6.80, P=0.012) in the dominant model, and no positively mutated allele was found in female patients.Conclusion Polymorphisms of the CDKN2B-AS1 gene are associated with the incidence of PTVD in the Chinese population. Furthermore, the frequencies of mutated alleles differed between genders.
Objective To investigate cognitive dysfunction in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and potential risk factors related to cognitive-especially memory-dysfunction.Methods Forty-seven patients with carotid artery stenosis were recruited into our study cohort. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were adopted to assess cognitive function, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) to assess memory function, high-resolution MRI and enhanced ultrasound to evaluate carotid plaques, and computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging to evaluate intracranial blood perfusion. Single-factor analysis and multiple-factor regression analysis were used to analyze potential risk factors of cognitive impairment.Results Mini-Mental State Examination test results showed that 22 patients had cognitive impairment, and MoCA test results showed that 10 patients had cognitive impairment. Analysis of various risk factors indicated that the average memory quotient of female patients was higher than that of males (P=0.024). The cognitive and memory performance of those with an educational background above high school were significantly better than those of participants with high school or lower (P=0.045). Patients with abnormal intracranial perfusion performed worse on the MMSE test (P=0.024), and their WMS scores were significantly lower (P=0.007). The MMSE scores and the memory quotients were significantly lower in patients with a history of cerebral infarction (MMSE, P=0.047, memory quotient score, P=0.018).Conclusion A history of cerebral infarction and abnormal cerebral perfusion are associated with decline in overall cognitive function and memory in patients with carotid stenosis. Being female and having an educational background above high school may be protective factors in the development of cognitive dysfunction.
Objective To evaluate the possible association between radon exposure and kidney cancer.Methods We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis based on random effect models to provide a pooled association measure.Results We subjected 8 studies (overall relative risks and 95% confidence intervals: 1.01, 0.72 to 1.43, I2=64.4%) to meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed a marginally significant association between radon exposure and kidney cancer in studies conducted in Europe. Two population-based studies provided no evidence for the increased risk of kidney cancer in the general population.Conclusion The association between radon and kidney cancer remains unclear but cannot be excluded because of its biological plausibility and the limited number and quality of existing studies. Additional data from the general population and well-designed miner cohort studies are needed to reveal the real relationship between radon exposure and kidney cancer.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) in the treatment and prevention of vaginal candidiasis in vivo.Methods The activities of different concentrations of BDSF against the virulence factors of Candida albicans (C. albicans) were determined in vitro. An experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis was treated with 250 μmol/L BDSF. Treatment efficiency was evaluated in accordance with vaginal fungal burden and inflammation symptoms.ResultsIn vitro experiments indicated that BDSF attenuated the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by decreasing phospholipase secretion and blocking filament formation. Treatment with 30 μmol/L BDSF reduced the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by 36.9% and 42.3%, respectively. Treatment with 200 μmol/L BDSF completely inhibited phospholipase activity. In vivo mouse experiments demonstrated that BDSF could effectively eliminate vaginal infection and relieve inflammatory symptoms. Four days of treatment with 250 μmol/L BDSF reduced vaginal fungal loads by 6-fold and depressed inflammation. Moreover, BDSF treatment decreased the expression levels of the inflammatory chemokine-associated genes MCP-1 and IGFBP3 by 2.5-and 2-fold, respectively.Conclusion BDSF is a novel alternative drug that can efficiently control vaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the virulence factors of C. albicans.
Objective Graft rejection, with the possibility of a violent immune response, may be severe and life threatening. Our aim was to thoroughly investigate the biocompatibility and immunotoxicology of collagen-based dermal matrix (DM) before assessment in clinical trials.Methods DM was subcutaneously implanted in BALB/c mice in two doses to induce a potential immune response. The spleen and lymph nodes were assessed for shape, cell number, cell phenotype via flow cytometry, cell activation via CCK8 kit, Annexin V kit, and Ki67 immunostaining. Serum samples were used to measure antibody concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Local inflammation was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry staining. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and non-parametric tests.Results Our data illustrate that the spleen and lymph node sizes were similar between the negative control mice and mice implanted with DM. However, in the high-dose DM (DM-H) group, the total cell populations in the spleen and lymph nodes, T cells and B cells in the spleen had slight increases in prophase, and the low-dose DM (DM-L) group did not display gross abnormities. Moreover, DM-H initiated moderate cell activation and proliferation in the early phase post-immunization, whereas DM-L did not. Neither DM-H nor DM-L implantation noticeably increased IgM and IgG serum concentrations. Examination of the local cellular response revealed only benign cell infiltration and TNF-α expression in slides of DM in the early phase.Conclusion Overall, DM-H may have induced a benign temporary acute immune response post-implantation, whereas DM-L had quite low immunogenicity. Thus, this DM can be regarded as a safe product.