2019 Vol. 32, No. 6

2019, 32(6): 1-1.
2019, 32(6): 2-2.
Original Articles
Dairy Consumption and Associations with Nutritional Status of Chinese Children and Adolescents
XU Pei Pei, YANG Ti Ti, XU Juan, LI Li, CAO Wei, GAN Qian, HU Xiao Qi, PAN Hui, ZHAO Wen Hua, ZHANG Qian
2019, 32(6): 393-405. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.054
Objective This study aimed to describe frequency and quantity of total dairy consumption of Chinese children and adolescents and explore the associations between dairy consumption and nutrition status, including stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity. Methods Participants included 28, 250 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 100 kinds of food was used to collect information about frequency and quantity of dairy consumption. Determination of stunting was with a height cutoff value for age and gender, and determination for wasting, overweight, and obesity was with BMI for age and gender. Results Of the total sample, 36.1% of children aged 6-17 reported consuming dairy food more than once per day (≥ 1/day). The average total dairy intake of all the participants was 126.7 g/day. For boys, dairy consumption had an inverse correlation with stunting and wasting after controlling for confounders. For girls, dairy consumption was negatively associated with stunting and obesity after controlling for confounders as above. Conclusion Dairy consumption in Chinese children and adolescents was relatively lower than that in developed countries, and was negatively associated with stunting and wasting for boys and with stunting and obesity for girls.
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Disorders Lipid Metabolism via TYK2/STAT1 and Autophagy in Rats
ZHANG Yue Zhu, ZHANG Zhao Ming, ZHOU Li Ting, ZHU Jian, ZHANG Xiao Han, QI Wen, DING Shuang, XU Qi, HAN Xu, ZHAO Ya Ming, SONG Xin Yue, ZHAO Tian Yang, YE Lin
2019, 32(6): 406-418. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.055
Objective Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. Methods In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP[0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg·d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. Results The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg·d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. Conclusion It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.
Protective Effect of Angiotensin (1-7) on Silicotic Fibrosis in Rats
ZHANG Bo Nan, XU Hong, GAO Xue Min, ZHANG Gui Zhen, ZHANG Xin, YANG Fang
2019, 32(6): 419-426. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.057
Objective Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ. Methods HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type Ⅰ, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang Ⅱ in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type Ⅰ and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang Ⅱ in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang Ⅱ. Conclusion Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang Ⅱ by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.
Immunological Evaluation of a Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen Rv0674
XIAO Tong Yang, LIU Hai Can, LI Xiao Qin, HUANG Ming Xiang, LI Gui Lian, LI Na, YAN Yu Han, LUO Qiao, WANG Xue Zhi, LI Ma Chao, WAN Kang Lin
2019, 32(6): 427-437. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.056
Objective This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674. Methods To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA. Results The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high-and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines. Conclusion Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.
Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Febrile Respiratory Syndrome among Patients in Qinghai, China
LIU Gao Shan, LI Hong, ZHAO Sheng Cang, LU Rou Jian, NIU Pei Hua, TAN Wen Jie
2019, 32(6): 438-445. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.058
Objective This study was conducted to investigate the viral and bacterial etiology and epidemiology of patients with acute febrile respiratory syndrome (AFRS) in Qinghai using a commercial routine multiplex-ligation-nucleic acid amplification test (NAT)-based assay. Methods A total of 445 nasopharyngeal swabs specimens from patients with AFRS were analyzed using the RespiFinderSmart22kit (PathoFinder BV, Netherlands) and the LightCycler 480 real-time PCR system. Results Among the 225 (225/445, 51%) positive specimens, 329 positive pathogens were detected, including 298 (90.58%) viruses and 31 (9%) bacteria. The most commonly detected pathogens were infiuenza virus (IFV; 37.39%; 123/329), adenovirus (AdV; 17.02%; 56/329), human coronaviruses (HCoVs; 10.94%; 36/329), rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV; 10.03%; 33/329), parainfiuenza viruses (PIVs; 8.51%; 28/329), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneu; 8.51%; 28/329), respectively. Among the co-infected cases (17.53%; 78/445), IFV/AdV and IFV/M. pneu were the most common co-infections. Most of the respiratory viruses were detected in summer and fall. Conclusion In our study, IFV-A was the most common respiratory pathogen among 22 detected pathogens, followed by AdV, HCoV, RV/EV, PIV, and M. pneu. Bacteria appeared less frequently than viruses, and co-infection was the most common phenomenon among viral pathogens. Pathogens were distributed among different age groups and respiratory viruses were generally active in July, September, and November. Enhanced surveillance and early detection can be useful in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AFRS, as well as for guiding the development of appropriate public health strategies.
Association between Serum Alkaline Phosphatase and Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Chinese Population: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study
YE Yi Cong, LIU Hua Min, ZHOU Yong, ZENG Yong
2019, 32(6): 446-453. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.059
Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and common carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis (ECAS). Methods A total of 3, 237 participants aged ≥ 40 years were recruited from Jidong community in 2013-2014. Participants were divided into five quintile groups based on their serum ALP levels. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed using ultrasound. Abnormal IMT, carotid plaque, and ECAS were defined as IMT > 0.9 mm, IMT > 1.5 mm, and ≥ 50% stenosis in at least one extracranial carotid artery, respectively. Results Common carotid IMT values and the prevalence of carotid plaque increased across serum ALP quintiles. Higher ALP quintiles were correlated with an increased risk of abnormal IMT[fourth quintile:odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.82, P=0.0135; fifth quintile:OR=1.82, 95% CI:1.15-2.87, P=0.0110] and ECAS compared to the lowest quintile (fifth quintile:OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.09-1.97, P=0.0106). The association between ALP and prevalence of carotid plaque became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Serum ALP levels were independently associated with abnormal common carotid IMT and ECAS. These conclusions need to be further corroborated in future prospective cohort studies.
Letters to the Editor
Factors Associated with Field Epidemiology Investigation: A Cross-sectional Study in China
LIU Bao Hua, ZHAO Miao Miao, LIANG Zi, GAO Li Jun, GAO Fei, WU Qun Hong, HAO Yan Hua, NING Ning
2019, 32(6): 454-458. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.060
Synthetic Characteristics Associated with HIV Diagnosis through Voluntary HIV Testing among HIV-positive People with Non-marital and Non-commercial Heterosexual Transmission in China
YU Qiu Yan, YU Shi Cheng, XU Peng, YANG Juan, LI Xiao Yu, LU Fan
2019, 32(6): 459-464. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.062
Association between NFE2L2 Gene Polymorphisms and Noise-induced Hearing Loss in a Chinese Population
WANG Bo Shen, XU Kai, ZHANG Hong, PU Yue Pu, YIN Li Hong, HAN Lei, CHEN Lin, WANG Ning, ZHU Bao Li, ZHANG Juan
2019, 32(6): 465-470. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.063
Microfluidic Chip Method for Multi-SNPs Genotyping in Individual Risk Assessment of Micronutrient Deficiency
ZHANG Chun Hong, HUO Jun Sheng, CHEN Shan, XU You Chun, SUN Jing, HUANG Jian
2019, 32(6): 471-475. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.061