2003 Vol. 16, No. 3
2003, 16(3): 195-205.
To calculate the effects of malnutrition on economic productivity in China.Methods PROFILES was used to quantify the function consequences of malnutrition in term of protein energy malnutrition, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency. Results Productivity gained due to improved iodine nutrition. The reduction in the TGR in 1992 to 2001 increased the net present value of further economic productivity by $142 billion. Reduction of the TGR rate to 5% over next 10years would result in future productivity gains with value of $40 billion. Productivity gain due to reductions in child stunting would result in future economic productivity gains with the value of$101billion. Reducing stunting further over the next 10 years would gain $20 billion. Productivity gain due to reduction of iron deficiency anemia reduced by 30% over the next 10 years would gain worth $107billion and if childhood anemia reduced by 30% over next 10 years would gain $348 billion.Conclusion These interventions have huge economic payoff. That is likely to exceed their costs many times over.
Prediction of Abdominal Visceral Obesity From Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference and Waist-hip Ratio in Chinese Adults:Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Analysis
2003, 16(3): 206-211.
To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measurements in diagnosing abdominal visceral obesity. Methods BMI, WC, and WHR were assessed in 690 Chinese adults (305 men and 385women) and compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to determine the threshold point for each anthropometric parameter. Results 1) MRI showed that 61.7% of overweight/obese individuals (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and 14.2% of normal weight (BMI＜25kg/m2) individuals had abdominal visceral obesity (VA≥ 100 cm2). 2) VA was positively correlated with each anthropometric variable, of which WC showed the highest correlation (r=0.73-0.77,P＜0.001 ). 3) The best cut-off points for assessing abdominal visceral obesity were as followed: BMI of 26 kg/m2, WC of 90 cm, and WHR of 0.93, with WC being the most sensitive and specific factor. 4)Among subjects with BMI≥28 kg/m2 or WC≥95 cm, 95% of men and 90% of women appeared to have abdominal visceral obesity. Conclusion Measurements of BMI, WC, and WHR can be used in the prediction of abdominal visceral obesity, of which WC was the one with better accuracy.
2003, 16(3): 212-218.
To explore the possibility of Schwann cells transplantation to promote the repair of injured brain stem reticular structure in rats. Methods Schwann cells originated from sciatic nerves of 1 to 2-day-old rats were expanded and labelled by BrdU in vitro, transplanted into rat brain stem reticular structure that was pre-injured by electric needle stimulus. Immunohistochemistry and myelin-staining were used to investigate the expression of BrdU, GAP-43 and new myelination respectively. Results BrdU positive cells could be identified for up to 8 months and their number increased by about 23%, which mainly migrated toward injured ipsilateral cortex. The GAP-43expression reached its peak in 1 month after transplantation and was significantly higher than that in the control group. New myelination could be seen in destructed brain stem areas. Conclusion The transplantation of Schwann cells can promote the restoration of injured brain stem reticular structure.
Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study
2003, 16(3): 219-226.
To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs ＜10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.
2003, 16(3): 227-236.
The study was designed to compare the combustion products of coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in relation to indoor air pollution. Methods Regular pollutants including B(a)P were monitored and 1-hydroxy pyrene were tested in urine of the enrolled subjects.Radon concentrations and their changes in four seasons were also monitored in the city natural gas from its source plant and transfer stations to final users. To analyze organic components of coal gas,liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, a high-flow sampling device specially designed was used to collect their combustion products, and semi-volatile organic compounds contained in the particles were detected by gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph (GC/MS). Results Findings in the study showed that the regular indoor air pollutants particles and CO were all above the standard in winter when heating facilities were operated in the city, but they were lowest in kitchens using natural gas;furthermore, although NO2 and CO2 were slightly higher in natural gas, B(a)P concentration was lower in this group and 1-hydroxy pyrene was lowest in urine of the subjects exposed to natural gas.Organic compounds were more complicated in coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas than in natural gas. The concentration of radon in natural gas accounted for less than 1‰ of its effective dose contributing to indoor air pollution in Beijing households. Conclusion Compared to traditional fuels, gases are deemed as clean ones, and natural gas is shown to be cleaner than the other two gases.
Effects of Fat-soluble Extracts From Vegetable Powder and β-carotene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cell YTMLC-90
2003, 16(3): 237-245.
The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of fat-soluble extracts from vegetable powder (FEFVP) and β-carotene on the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured YTMLC-90lung cancer cells. Methods The lung cancer cells were continuously exposed to a broad range of concentration of FEFVP and β-carotene. The proliferation was evaluated in MTT test. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated by morphological change, DNA fragmentation analysis, and DNA content analysis combined with flow cytometric analysis. Results Both FEFVP and β-carotene were found to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce morphologic changes consistent with apoptosis in YTMLC-90 cancer cells, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation and cytometric analysis revealed decreased DNA content and the presence of a sub-G1 apoptotic peak.Conclusion These findings are consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of FEFVP are stronger than those of β-carotene. FEFVP inhibits the growth of YTMLC-90 probably via the induction of apoptosis cancer cells.
Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation
2003, 16(3): 246-255.
The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.
Injury of Mouse Brain Mitochondria Induced by Cigarette Smoke Extract and Effect of Vitamin C on It in vitro
2003, 16(3): 256-266.
To investigate the toxicity of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and nicotine on mouse brain mitochondria as well as the protective effect of vitamin C in vitro. Method Mouse brain mitochondria in vitro was incubated with CSE or nicotine in the absence or presence of vitamin C for 60 minutes, and the changes of mitochondrial function and structure were measured. Results CSE inhibited mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase activities in a dose-dependent manner.However, no significant changes in the peroxidation indices were observed when mitochondrial respiratory enzymes activity was inhibited, and protection of mitochondria from CSE-induced injury by vitamin C was not displayed in vitro. The effect of CSE on mouse brain mitochondria swelling response to calcium stimulation was dependent on calcium concentrations. CSE inhibited swelling of mitochondria at 6.5 μmol/L Ca2+, but promoted swelling response at 250 μmol/L Ca2+. Nicotine, the major component of cigarette smoke, showed no significant damage in mouse brain mitochondria in vitro. The CSE treatment induced mitochondrial inner membrane damage and vacuolization of the matrix, whereas the outer mitochondrial membrane appeared to be preserved. Conclusion The toxic effect of CSE on brain mitochondria may be due to its direct action on enzymatic activity rather than through oxygen free radical injury. Nicotine is not the responsible component for the toxicity of CSE to brain mitochondria.
Inhibiting Effects of Achyranthes Bidentata Polysaccharide and Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Nonenzyme Glycation in D-galactose Induced Mouse Aging Model
2003, 16(3): 267-275.
To investigate the inhibiting effects and mechanism of achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model. Methods Serum AGE levels were determined by AGE-ELISA, MTT method was used to determine lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 activity was determined by a bioassay method. Spontaneous motor activity was used to detect mouse's neuromuscular movement, latency of step-through method was used to examine learning and memory abilities of mouse, colormetric assay was used to determine hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin, pyrogallol autoxidation method was used to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of erythrocytes. Results Decreased levels of serum AGE, hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin and spontaneous motor activity in D-galactose mouse aging model were detected after treated with ABP or LBP, while lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 activity, learning and memory abilities,SOD activity of erythrocytes, were enhanced. Conclusions ABP and LBP could inhibit nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model in vivo and ABP has a better inhibiting effect than LBP.
2003, 16(3): 276-282.
To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Results Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control.Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. Conclusion The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.
2003, 16(3): 283-294.
To evaluate the genotoxic and nongenotoxic effects of short-term exposure to glycidyl mathacrylate (GMA) on human lung fibroblast cells (2BS cells) in vitro. Methods DNA strand breakage was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis, and DNA ladder formation assay and flow cytometric analysis were carried out to detect apoptic responses of cells to GMA exposure.The HPRT gene mutation assay was used to evaluate the mutagenicity, and the effect of GMA on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the exposed cells was examined with the scrape loading/dye transfer technique. The ability of GMA to transform 2BS cells was also tested by an in vitro cell transformation assay. Results Exposure to GMA resulted in a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks but not apoptic responses. GMA was also shown to significantly induce HPRT gene mutations and morphological transformation in 2BS cells in vitro. In contrast, GMA produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of GJIC. Conclusions GMA elicits both genotoxic and nongenotoxic effects on 2BS cells in vitro. The induction of DNA damage and gene mutations and inhibition of GJIC by GMA may casually contribute to GMA-induced cell transformation.
Influence of Hypertension, Lipometabolism Disorders, Obesity and Other Lifestyles on Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
2003, 16(3): 295-303.
To investigate whether hypertension, abnormal lipometabolism, obesity, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking affect the intracerebral hemorrhagic volumes (IHV) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SIHP), and to explore the roles of these factors in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SIH). Methods Five hundred patients with acute SIH and 200 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in a study of independently randomized controlled design, in which the levels of systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP), and total cholesterol (TCH),triacylglycerols (triglycerides, TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH) in serum as well as the level of erythrocytic membrane cholesterol (EM-CH) were measured, and the body mass index (BMI), daily cigarette smoking consumption (DCSC) and daily pure alcohol consumption (DPAC) were calculated. Results Compared with the average parameters in the HAV group, those of SP, DP, TG, LDL-CH and BMI in the SIHP group were significantly increased (P＜0.0001), while those of HDL-CH and EM-CH were significantly decreased (P＜0.0001). The linear regression and correlation analysis showed that with increased SP, DP,LDL-CH, BMI, DCSC, DPAC and aging as well as decreased HDL-CH and EM-CH, the IHV levels in SIHP were increased gradually (P＜0.0001-0.01). The linear stepwise regression analysis suggested that there existed a close correlation among the values of SP, DP, TCH, TG, HDL-CH, LDL-CH,EM-CH, BMI, DCSC, DPAC, age and IHV of the SIH patients, and that Y = - 12.4583 + 0.1127SP -1.1977EM-CH + 0.9788LDL-CH + 0.2477BMI + 0.0382DCSC + 0.0248DP, P＜0.0001～ 0.05.Conclusions The findings in the present study suggest that significantly increased systolic and diastolic pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index and daily cigarette smoking consumption, and significantly decreased erythrocytic membrane cholesterol may be likely the main factors affecting intracerebral hemorrhagic volumes in patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.