2011 Vol. 24, No. 1
Physical Growth of Children in Urban, Suburban and Rural Mainland China: A Study of 20 Years' Change
2011, 24(1): 1-11. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.001
Objective To describe secular trends on physical growth of children in China during the year of 1985-2005 and to analyze the urban-suburban-rural difference and its change.Methods The measurements of height, weight and chest circumference obtained from two serial national cross-sectional surveys for children aged 0 to 7 years in China were used to analyze the secular trends, and the growth differences among urban, suburban and rural children were compared.Results The average weight and height for both boys and girls from urban, suburban and rural areas have significantly increased in most age groups during the past 20 years; The average chest circumference increased slightly, ranging from 0.0 to 2.0 cm. From 1985 to 2005, the urban-suburban difference in height had become smaller, and that in weight showed similar trend for children under 3years old but became larger after 3 years old; the suburban-rural difference both in height and weight became larger after 6 months old. The increment per decade in height was the greatest in the suburban group while the greatest increment in weight was the urban group.Conclusion Positive secular trends were observed among urban, suburban and rural areas in Chinese children under 7 years old during the 1980s and the 2000s, reflecting a rapid socio-economic development in China.
2011, 24(1): 12-21. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.002
Objective To explore the role of adipokines including insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 (C3) in various types of obesity (peripheral obesity,abdominal obesity and mixed obesity) in Chinese children and adolescents, and their relationships with body size and pubertal development.Methods Children and adolescents (n=3 508) aged 6 to 18 years, with 1 788 boys and 1 720 girls were assessed for body mass index, waist circumference, pubertal development, blood insulin, resistin, leptin,adiponectin, ASP and C3 levels. Three types of obesity [peripheral obesity (n=43), abdominal obesity (n=473), mixed obesity (n=1 187)] and non-obese control (n=1 805) were defined with combined use of Chinese body mass index and waist circumference criteria.Results Serum resistin, leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in girls than those in boys (all P＜0.01). Insulin and leptin increased and adiponectin decreased across five Tanner stages in both girls and boys (all P＜0.001), while ASP changed only in girls (P＜0.001) and C3 only in boys (P＜0.001). Insulin,leptin and ASP were higher, but adiponectin was lower in all three types of obesity vs. the non-obese control (all P＜0.05). The greatest abnormalities of all six adipokines were found in the mixed obesity group. With inclusion of body mass index and waist circumference in simultaneous regression analyses,both body size indices were independently and significantly correlated with insulin, leptin and adiponectin after age and gender adjustment. Compared with waist circumference, the body mass index was stronger in interpreting insulin, leptin, adiponectin and ASP levels, whereas it was weaker in explaining variance of plasma C3.Conclusions Obese children have a worse metabolic profile with high insulin, resistin, leptin, ASP and C3, and low adiponectin levels. The adipokine profile in mixed obesity is worse than that in peripheral or abdominal obesity. Identification of obese subjects with a malignant adipokine profile using a combination of body mass index and waist circumference is important for the prevention of obesity-related disease.
Impacts of Types and Degree of Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Dyslipidemia in Chinese School-Age Children?
2011, 24(1): 22-30. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.003
Objective To explore the impacts of types and degree of obesity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and related lipids disturbance in Chinese school-age children.Methods A total of 1 452 school-age Children of 7 to 17 years were recruited in Beijing with representative cluster sampling method. Data of anthropometric measurements including weight,height and waist circumference were collected from March to May of 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Blood samples were obtained and lipid profiles including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured, while glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST)were determined to evaluate liver function. The liver was also scanned by sonography, and abnormal hepatic sonograms were documented. NAFLD was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the Fatty Liver and Alcoholic Liver Disease Study Group under the Chinese Liver Disease Association.Analysis of covariance (ANOVA), Chi-square test for trend and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Results The dyslipidemia and ultrasonographic fatty liver deteriorated with the degree of obesity defined either by BMI or waist circumference. Compared with BMI, waist circumference contributed more to the development of dyslipidemia, fatty liver and NAFLD. The highest levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and lowest level of HDL-C were seen in the mixed obese group followed by abdominal obese, peripheral obese and non-obese ones. Adjusted for gender and age, the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95%confidence intervals of peripheral obesity, abdominal obesity and mixed obesity were 0, 10.93(0.98-121.96) and 79.16 (10.95-572.44) for predicting NAFLD; 12.61 (1.24-127.78), 19.39 (5.23-71.85),and 93.21 (29.56-293.90) for predicting ultrasonographic fatty liver; 1.78 (0.59-5.44), 3.01 (1.91-4.77),and 4.64 (3.52-6.12) for predicting dyslipidemia, respectively compared with the non-obese control group. The trend of hazards over groups was statistically significant (P＜0.01).Conclusion The levels of lipid profile and the prevalence of NAFLD and dyslipidemia increased in parallel with the degree of obesity; As compared with the non-obese control, the mixed obesity had the strongest association with NAFLD and dyslipidemia, followed by abdominal obesity and peripheral obesity in Chinese school-age Children.
2011, 24(1): 31-39. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.004
Objective To investigate the associations of hormone circulation with phthalate exposure in adult men.Methods Semen and serum samples were collected from 118 men who were suspected of infertility.Phthalate diesters including dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in both semen and serum samples were measured, along with serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL).Results Serum PRL was positively associated with serum DBP and DEHP and semen DEHP in all models of Spearman correlation, linear regression and binary logistic regression. In linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders and excluding subjects with undetectable phthalates, a 10-fold increase in semen DEHP was associated with a 23% increase in serum PRL, as well as a 26% increase in serum DBP and a 20% increase in serum DEHP. In logistic regression models all subjects demonstrated a dose-response relationship between above reference value PRL and semen DEHP (odds ratio per tertile adjusted for potential confounders = 1.0, 1.70, 3.50; Pfor trend = 0.01), and serum DBP (1.0, 1.10, 2.62;P for trend = 0.04), and serum DEHP (1.0, 1.46, 4.69; P for trend ＜ 0.01). A positive correlation between serum estradiol and semen DEHP (linear regression), and an inverse correlation between semen DBP and serum testosterone and T:E2 ratio (Spearman correlation) were also established.Conclusions Serum PRL is suggested to be positively associated with both DBP and DEHP exposure in adult men.
2011, 24(1): 40-46. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.005
Objective To establish a comprehensive analytical method based on SPE-UPLC-MS for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) in urine samples.Methods Sixty urine samples collected from healthy subjects were analyzed for BPA, NP, and OP concentrations. The samples were de-conjugated by adding β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. After the enzymatic treatment, the samples were subjected to the OASIS HLB column solid phase extraction cartridges so as to be cleaned and concentrated. The UPLC separation was performed on a Acquity UPLCTM BEH C18 column (2.1x100 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient elution system of methanol-water as the mobile phase. Triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry analyzer was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of UPLC-MS/MS system.Results The limit of detection of BPA, NP, and OP was 0.10, 0.10, and 0.15 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of BPA, NP and OP were 80.1%-108%, 81.3%-109%, and 81.5%-98.7%, respectively. Among the 60 urine samples, BPA was detected in 8 samples at the level of 0.297-32.7ng/mL, NP was detected in 29 samples at the level of 1.69-27.8 ng/mL, and OP was detected in 17 samples at the level of 0.407-11.1 ng/mL.Conclusion The method is simple with high sensitivity and selectivity, and is suitable for the determination of BPA, NP, and OP in urine. As shown by our analysis, BPA, NP, and OP appear to be prevalent in human urine. This is particularly true for NP. The results from our study is therefore valuable for future studies to assess the exposure to BPA, NP, and OP in the general population.
2011, 24(1): 47-55. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.006
Objective Bloom's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and a predisposition to many cancers. Mutations of the BLM gene (encoding a BLM helicase) may form a structure of the etiology of this disease. As a global pollutant, mercury poses a major threat to human health. The current study was conducted to elucidate the effects of Hg2+ on the structure and activity of BLM642-1290 recombinant helicase, and to further explore the molecular mechanisms of mercury toxicity to the DNA helicase.Methods The effects of Hg2+ on biological activity and structure of BLM642-1290 recombinant helicase were determined by fluorescence polarized, ultraviolet spectroscopic, and free-phosphorus assay technologies, respectively.Results The helicase activity, the DNA-binding activity, and the ATPase activity of BLM642-1290recombinant helicase were inhibited by Hg2+ treatment. The LMCT (ligand-to-metal charge transition)peaks of the helicase were enhanced with the increase of the Hg2+ level. The LMCT peaks of the same concentration of helicase gradually increased over time.Conclusions The biological activity of BLM642-1290 recombinant helicase is inhibited by Hg2+treatment. The conformation of the helicase is significantly altered by Hg2+. There exist two binding sites between Hg2+ and the helicase, which are located in the amino acid residues 1063-1066 and 940-944 of the helicase, respectively.
2011, 24(1): 56-61. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.007
Objective To investigate the characteristic of integrons and the relationship between integrons and antimicrobial resistance in Shigellaspp.Methods Ninety 5higella strains (83 S. flexneri and 7 S. sonnel) were isolated from the stools of patients in China. Susceptibility to 8 antimicrobials was tested for all isolated strains. PCR, RFLP and sequencing analysis of integrons were applied to all of them.Results High prevalence of multi-drug resistance (95.6%) was identified. Of the isolates 79 (87.8%)carried integrase genes of class 1 integron (3.3%), class 2 integron (10.0%) or both (74.4%). No intβ was detected in the tested isolates. The prevalence of intΩ was significantly higher in isolates with multi-drug resistance to at least 3 antibiotics than that in isolates with resistance to 2 and less antibiotics (P＜0.05). Gene cassettes dfrA17-aadAS, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 of class 1 integron and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 of class 2 integron were identified.Conclusion The class 2 integron may play a role in the emergence of multi-drug resistance in Shigella spp.
2011, 24(1): 62-67. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.008
Objective To determine if global warming has an impact on the evolution of hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses, because both global warming and influenza pandemics/epidemics threaten the world.Methods 4 706 hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses sampled from 1956 to 2009 were converted to a time-series to show their evolutionary process and compared with the global, northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere temperatures, to determine if their trends run in similar or opposite directions. Point-to-point comparisons between temperature and quantified hemagglutinins were performed for all species and for the major prevailing species.Results The comparisons show that the trends for both hemagglutinin evolution and temperature change run in a similar direction.Conclusion Global warming has a consistent and progressive impact on the hemagglutinin evolution of influenza A viruses.
Correlation between the Amplitude of Glucose Excursion and the Oxidative/Antioxidative System in Subjects with Different Types of Glucose Regulation
2011, 24(1): 68-73. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.009
Objective To investigate effects of glucose excursion on the oxidative/antioxidative system in subjects with different types of glucose regulation.Methods A total of 30 individuals with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 27 subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 27 subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were selected and recruited for 3 days' continuous glucose monitor system (CGMS) assessment. The data from CGMS was used to calculate the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), mean blood glucose (MBG) and its standard deviation (SDBG), area under the ROC curve when the blood glucose ＞5.6 mmol/L within 24 h (AUC 5.6), mean of daily differences (MODD), and mean postprandial glucose excursion (MPPGE). In all groups, the content or activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidation capacity (TAOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected.Results Glucose excursion parameters of subjects with T2DM or IGR were higher than those of NGR subjects (P＜0.05 or 0.01). Moreover, Glucose excursion parameters of T2DM subjects were higher than those of IGR subjects (P＜0.05 or 0.01). Subjects with T2DM or IGR had significant higher MDA levels and lower GSH-Px/MDA and TAOC/MDA levels compared to NGR subjects (P＜0.01). T2DM subjects had even higher MDA levels and lower GSH-Px/MDA levels than IGR (P＜0.05 or 0.01). According to the median of normal population for MAGE, T2DM and IGR subjects were divided into MAGE＞2.6mmol/L Group and MAGE≤2.6mmol/L Group. MAGE＞2.6mmol/L Group had higher levels of MDA and lower levels of GSH-Px/MDA than MAGE≤2.6mmol/L Group (P＜0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P＞0.05) in terms of the levels of TAOC/MDA. Pearson correlation analysis showed that MDA was positively correlated with FPG, 2hPG, MAGE, and SBP. GSH-Px/MDA was negatively correlated with MAGE and TC. TAOC/MDA was negatively correlated with FPG. Partial correlation analysis showed that the relationship between MDA and MAGE, GSH-Px/MDA, and MAGE remained significant after adjustments for the other differences among groups.Conclusion Glucose excursion contributed significantly to promoting lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidation capacity than chronic sustained hyperglycemia did in the subjects with different types of glucose regulation.
2011, 24(1): 74-80. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.010
Objective To detect the content of the basic fibroblast growth factor in blood samples of patients with Moyamoya disease, and investigate the relationship between Moyamoya disease and the basic fibroblast growth factor.Methods This tissue microarray study included 24 cases of superficial temporal artery samples, 15 cases of Moyamoya disease, and 9 cases of normal arteries as control, and bFGF immunofluorescence assay was applied to test the samples. The number of positive cells and total cells of the muscular layer and the endothelium layer were counted separately in every picture, the positive rates were calculated,and the experimental data were analyzed statistically.Results The bFGF immunofluorescence staining of smooth muscular layer cells, intima cells and endothelial cells from the moyamoya disease group were obviously stronger than that from the control group (P＜0.01).Conclusion The enhancement expression of bFGF in the Moyamaya disease group implicates that bFGF plays an important part in the pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease.
2011, 24(1): 81-87. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.011
Heparan sulfate (HS) is ubiquitously expressed on the surfaces and in the extracellular matrix of virtually all cell types, making it an ideal receptor for viral infection. Compared with wild-type viruses,cell culture-adapted laboratory strains exhibit more efficient binding to cellular HS receptors. HS-binding viruses are typically cleared faster from the circulation and cause lower viremia than their non-HS-binding counterparts, suggesting that the HS-binding phenotype is a tissue culture adaptation that lowers virus fitness in vivo. However, when inoculated intracranially, efficient cell attachment through HS binding can contribute to viral neurovirulence. The primary aim of this review is to discuss the roles of HS binding in viral pathogenicity, including peripheral virulence and neurovirulence.Understanding how heparan sulfate functions during virus infection in vivo may prove critical for elucidating the molecular mechanism of viral pathogenesis, and may contribute to the development of therapeutics targeting HS.