2011 Vol. 24, No. 2
2011, 24(2): 89-93. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.001
Objective Convincing evidence suggests a link between increased risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) and low intake of folic acid by the mother during pregnancy. The present study was designed to explore if genetic variation in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) gene contributes to NSCL/P. Methods DNA was obtained from 166 individuals with NSCL/P and 285 healthy subjects. Three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in the BHMT gene (rs651852, rs3797546, and rs3733890) were investigated by real-time PCR-based TaqMan genotyping. Results Neither allelic nor genotypic association was found between NSCL/P and SNPs rs651852 and rs3733890. SNP rs3797546 did not show allelic association with NSCL/P; however, a higher proportion of NSCL/P patients carry the CC genotype compared with the TT+CT genotype (P=0.020, OR=2.10, 95% Cl=1.11-3.95). Conclusion Our study suggests that polymorphism rs3797546 in the BHMT gene may confer genetic risk of NSCL/P in a recessive manner.
Effect of Exposure to Trace Elements in the Soil on the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects in a High-Risk Area of China
2011, 24(2): 94-101. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.002
Objective Our objective is to build a model that explains the association between the exposure to trace elements in the soil and the risk of neural tube defects. Methods We built a function with different parameters to describe the effects of trace elements on neural tube defects. The association between neural tube defects and trace element levels was transformed into an optimization problem using the maximum likelihood method. Results Tin, lead, nickel, iron, copper, and aluminum had typical layered effects (dosage effects) on the prevalence of neural tube defects. Arsenic, selenium, zinc, strontium, and vanadium had no effect, and molybdenum had one threshold value that affected the prevalence of birth defects. Conclusion As an exploratory research work, our model can be used to determine the direction of the effect of the trace element content of cultivated soil on the risk of neural tube defects, which shows the clues by the dosage effect of their toxicological characteristics. Based on our findings, future biogeochemical research should focus on the direct effects of trace elements on human health.
2011, 24(2): 102-111. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.003
Objective Particulate samples from the atmosphere in an electronic waste dismantling area were collected to investigate the levels and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Methods Particulate samples including total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter <2.5 μm diameter (PM<,2.5>) were collected on selected non-rainy days in summer (Jul 10-12, 2006) and winter (Jan 11-13, 2007) from Fengjiang (FJ), an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area in eastern China, and an adjacent area Luqiao (LQ). The samples were analyzed by isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results In FJ, the mean PCDD/F concentrations (mean TEQ values) were 280.6 pg Nm<'-3> (3.432 pg WHO-TEQ Nm<'-3>) for the TSP samples and 223.3 pg Nm<'-3> (3.180 pg WHO-TEQ Nm<'-3>) for the PM<,2.5> samples. The total PCDD/F concentrations and TEQs in the PM<,2.5> samples were about 66.8%-108.0% of the TSP samples, indicating that the fine particles contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs than coarse particles. The PCDD/F levels in FJ were much higher than those detected in common urban areas around the world, suggesting that the study area was heavily polluted by PCDD/Fs. Furthermore, the total average daily PCDD/F intake in FJ was estimated at 62.11 pg WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1> for adults and 110.11 pg WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1> for children, which greatly exceeds the WHO (1998) tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg of WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1>. Conclusion The PCDD/F homologues and congener profiles confirmed that the PCDD/Fs in FJ originated from crude e-waste recycling activities. The severe dioxin pollution present in FJ has also substantially influenced the adjacent area of LQ through atmospheric transport. Open burning of medical waste was another source of PCDD/Fs identified in LQ.
Correlations of PCBs, DIOXIN, and PBDE with TSH in Children's Blood in Areas of Computer E-waste Recycling
2011, 24(2): 112-116. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.004
Objective To study correlations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DIOXIN, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) with thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) in children, and assess the impact on children's health. Methods Three hundred and sixty nine children aged from 6 to 8, including 195 from Luqiao, the computer E-waste recycling area, and 174 from Longyou, the control area, were selected for this investigation to elucidate the correlation of PCBs, DIOXIN, and PBDE with TSH in children's blood samples. The children had a physical examination and their blood levels of PCBs, DIOXIN, PBDE, and TSH were detected after sample collection. Results In the E-waste recycling area, the contents of PCBs, PBDE, DIOXIN, and TSH in the blood samples of children were 484.00±84.86 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight, 664.28±262.38 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight, 26.00±19.58 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight and 1.88±0.42 μIU/mL (serum) respectively, while in the control area, the PCBs, PBDE, DIOXIN, and TSH contents were 255.38±95 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight, 375.81±262.43 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight, 39.64±31.86 ng·g<'-1> lipid weight, and 3.31±1.04 μIU/mL respectively. Conclusion The health status of children in the control area are better than that in the contaminated area. Among children who are exposed to persistent organic pollutants, the pollutant content increases significantly in their serum, and the distribution of TSH levels in their bodies are also affected.
2011, 24(2): 117-121. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.005
Objective The study is to investigate the associations between visibility, major air pollutants and daily counts of hospital admission in Shanghai, China. Methods Daily data on hospital admission, visibility, and air pollution during 2005-2008 were obtained from the Shanghai Insurance Bureau (SHIB), Shanghai Meteorological Bureau, and Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, respectively. The generalized additive model (GAM) with penalized splines was used to examine the associations between daily visibility and hospital admission. Results Among various pollutants, PM<,2.5> showed strongest correlation with visibility. Decreased visibility was significantly associated with increased risk of hospital admission in Shanghai. An inter-quartile range decrease in the 2-day (L01) moving average of visibility corresponded to 3.66% (95%Cl:1.02%, 6.31%), 4.06% (95%Cl:0.84%, 7.27%), and 4.32% (95%Cl:1.67%, 6.97%) increase of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory hospitalizations, respectively. Conclusion Our analyses provide the first piece of evidence in China, demonstrating that decreased visibility has an effect on hospital admission, and this finding strengthens the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai.
2011, 24(2): 122-131. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.006
Objective It aims to investigate the changes in composition and structure of bacterial communities de-veloping on biological activated carbon (BAC) particles, and the bacterial functions. Method A pilot plant had been in service for 180 days, aiming to develop bacterial communities on acti-vated carbon naturally. After 180 days of operation, the bacterial communities were determined by dena-turing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. The study on community composition and the phylogenetic relationships of the organisms was complemented by a se-quence analysis of cloned PCR products from 16S rRNA genes. Gas chromatorgaphy-mass (GC-MS) mea-surement was used to determine organic chemical composition of inflow and outflow water on the 300th day. TOC and NH<,4><'+>-N were also tested in this experiment. Results It showed that the stable bacterial structure did not develop on BAC particles until the 9th month during running time of the BAC filter. The communities were finally dominated by Pseudomonas sp., Ba-cillus sp., Nitrospira sp., and an uncultured bacterium. Stable bacterial communities played an important role in removal of NH<,4><'+>-N and total organic carbon (TOC). Results from gas chromatorgaphy-mass (GC-MS) showed that 36 kinds of chemicals in feed water were eliminated, and concentrations of 5 kinds of chemicals decreased. These chemicals served as nutrients for the dominant bacteria. Conclusion The findings from the study suggested that the stability of microbial structure was beneficial for improving NH<,4><'+>-N and TOC removal efficiencies. The dominant bacteria had the advantage of biode-grading a wide range of organic chemicals and NH<,4><'+>-N.
Analysis of Environmental Endocrine Disrupting Activities in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using Recombinant Yeast Assays Incorporated with Exogenous Metabolic Activation System
2011, 24(2): 132-139. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.007
Objective To measure the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater and evaluate the EDCs removal efficiencies in the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Methods A battery of in vitro recombinant yeast bioassays incorporated with exogenous metabolic activation system (rat liver preparation, S9 mix) was conducted to assess the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and thyroid receptor (TR) ant/agonistic activities of effluents collected from Datansha WWTP. Results The indirect estrogenic, anti-androgenic, anti-progesteronic, and anti-thyroidic activities were observed in the influent. The removal efficiencies of EDCs were above 74%, suggesting that the present wastewater treatment processes were good enough to remove most of these indirect endocrine disrupting chemicals. Conclusion The incorporation of exogenous metabolic capacity into the test system was valid for the study of indirect effects on ER, AR, PR, and TR.
2011, 24(2): 140-145. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.008
Objective To compare the bacterioplankton communities in streams exposed to pollution of different types. Methods The bacterioplankton communities in three selected heavily polluted streams were investigated by using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis in combination with 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Results Both T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene clone library revealed a great difference in bacterioplankton community composition in the different streams. Conclusion This work might provide some new insights into bioremediation of heavily polluted streams.
Hyperuricemia Accompanied with Changes in the Retinal Microcirculation in a Chinese High-risk Population for Diabetes
2011, 24(2): 146-154. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.009
Objective To investigate the association of retinal vascular calibers with hyperuricemia in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods A cross-sectional design was applied in this study and 869 participants aged ≥40 years from a high-risk group for diabetes were recruited. All participants received the anthropometrical measurements and laboratory tests. Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber of the participants were measured with a semi-automated system. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level >420 μmol/L in men and >360 μmol/L in women. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of hyperuricemia with retinal vascular calibers. These models were additionally adjusted for age, central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, weekly activity, smoking status, and education. Results Among the 869 participants, 133 (15.3%) suffered from hyperuricemia. The crude mean serum uric acid level was 312.3 μmol/L (Standard Deviation 79.5); mean concentration was 355.0 μmol/L (SD 75.5) in male participants, and 288.0 μmol/L (SD 71.1) in female participants (age-adjusted difference 58.1 μmol/L, 95% Confidence Internal 48.5, 67.6). After adjusting for additional covariates, male participants with hyperuricemia had 3.77 μm (95% Cl -0.46, 8.00) smaller arteriolar caliber and 6.20 μm (95% Cl 0.36, 12.04) larger venule than those without hyperuricemia; the corresponding numbers among female participants were 1.57 μm (95% Cl -1.07, 4.21) for retinal arteriolar caliber and 2.28 μm (95% Cl -1.72, 6.27) for retinal venular caliber.Conclusion Hyperuricemia was associated with smaller retinal arteriolar caliber and larger venularcaliber mainly in male participants in this study.
2011, 24(2): 155-162. doi: 10.3957/0895-3988.2011.02.010
Objective To investigate cardiac function and myocardial perfusion during 48 h after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), further to test myocardial stunning and seek indicators for long-term survival after CPR. Methods After 4 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, fifteen anesthetized pigs were studied at baseline and 2 h, 4 h, 24 h, and 48 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Hemodynamic data, echocardiography and gated-single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion images were carried out. Results Mean arterial pressure (MAP), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and cardiac troponin I (CTNI) showed significant differences between eventual survival animals and non-survival animals at 4 h after ROSC (109.2±10.7 mmHg vs. 94.8±12.3 mmHg, P=0.048; 100.8±6.9 mmHg vs. 84.4±12.6 mmHg, P=0.011; 1.60±0.13 ug/L vs. 1.75±0.10 ug/L, P=0.046). Mitral valve early-to-late diastolic peak velocity ratio, mitral valve deceleration time recovered 24 h; ejection faction and the summed rest score recovered 48 h after ROSC. Conclusion Cardiac systolic and early active relaxation dysfunctions were reversible within survival animals; cardiac stunning might be potentially adaptive and protective after CPR. The recovery of MAP, CPP, and CTNI could be the indicators for long-term survival after CPR.
Methylation of RAR-β2, RASSF1A, and CDKN2A Genes Induced by Nickel Subsulfide and Nickel-carcinogenesis in Rats
2011, 24(2): 163-171. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.011
Objective To investigate the expression variation of RAR-β2, RASSF1A, and CDKN2A gene in the process of nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Methods Nickel subsulfide (Ni<,3>S<,2>) at dose of 10 mg was given to Wistar rats by intramuscular injection. The mRNA expression of the three genes in induced tumors and their lung metastasis were examined by Real-time PCR. The methylation status of the 5' region of these genes were detected by Quantitative Real-time methylation specific PCR. Results The mRNA expressions of the three genes both in muscle and lung tumor were decreased distinctly in comparison with normal tissue. But hypermethylation was found only in muscle tumor. Conclusion These findings suggest that loss of function or decrease of RAR-β2, RASSF1A, and CDKN2A, as well as the hypermethylation of 5' region of these genes, are related with nickel exposure.
2011, 24(2): 172-179. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.012
Objective To produce anti-19-Nortestosterone (NT) monoclonal antibodies and identify their immunological characteristics. Methods Hybridomas were prepared by fusing NSO mouse myeloma cells with splenocytes isolated from immunized BALB/c mice. Noncompetitive and competitive indirect ELISA were employed to screen positive cell clones. A caprylic acid ammonium sulphate (CAAP) method was used to purify NT mAb, and the Batty saturation method was used to determine the affinity constant (Kaff). Results Five hybridorna cell lines, named NT-1, NT-2, NT-3, NT-4, and NT-5, were identified and their corresponding mAbs were of the IgG<,1> isotype with a k light chain. The Kaffs of all mAbs were between 2.6 and 4.7×10<'9> L/mol. The titers and IC<,50> values of purified ascite fluids were in the range of (0.64-2.56)×10<'5> and (0.55-1.0) ng/mL, respectively. Of all the cross-reacting steroids, α-NT was the most reactive with the mAbs at 62% with NT-1 mAb and 64% with NT-2 mAb. Negligible cross-reactivity (<0.01%) with other steroids was observed. Conclusion The establishment of these hybridomas allows the potential development of a rapid test kit, and may provide an alternative method for the detection of NT residues in food producing animals.
Local Proinflammatory Effects of Repeated Skin Exposure to Warfarin, An Anticoagulant Rodenticide in Rats
2011, 24(2): 180-189. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.013
Objective: To evaluate the effects of epicutaneous application of anticoagulant warfarin, by examining the presence of tissue injury and immune/inflammatory activity in exposed skin. Methods: Rats were exposed to warfarin by applying 10 μg of warfarin-sodium to 10-12 cm<'2> skin (range 0.8-1 μg per 1 cm<'2>) for 3 consecutive days. Tissue injury was evaluated by lipid peroxidation, histomorphological changes and signs of reparative activity in skin. T cell infiltration and selected aspects of epidermal cell activity were examined as indicators of immune/inflammatory skin response to warfarin application. Results: Repeated warfarin application exerted no effect on skin metabolic viability, but resulted in tissue injury (increased malondialdehyde, MDA, production, evident histo-morphological changes in epidermis and dermis depicting cell injury and death). Increased numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA<'+>) cells indicated reparative processes in injured skin. Infiltration of CD3<'+> cells (T lymphocytes) along with the increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by epidermal cells from warfarin-treated skin and their co-stimulatory effect in an in vitro T-cell activation assay demonstrated immunomodulatory effects of epicutaneous warfarin. Conclusion: Presented data have documented tissue damage associated with immune/ inflammatory activity in skin exposed to warfarin. Observed effects are relevant to immunotoxic potential of this anticoagulant in settings of external exposure.
2011, 24(2): 190-199. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.014
Objective To investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic efficacy of Cynodon dactylon in diabetic rats. Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group Ⅰ: control; Group Ⅱ: Alloxan diabetic, untreated; and Group Ⅲ: Alloxan diabetic treated with ethanolic extract of C. dactylon leaves (450 mg/kg·bw). Experimental diabetes was induced by alloxan in a single dose of 150 mg/kg·bw. Results A Significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level was observed and also significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were observed after 15 days of treatment. The investigation also revealed, the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, AP, LDH, and CPK (P<0.05) were decreased in the extract-supplemented group. The significant decrease in protein content and SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH (P<0.05) activity and increase in LPO in plasma were found to be ameliorated after treatment. Conclusion Our result supports the fact that administration of extract of C. dactylon leave is able to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduced the oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
ENPP1/PC-1 Gene K121Q Polymorphism Is Associated with Obesity in European Adult Populations: Evidence from A Meta-Analysis Involving 24 324 Subjects
2011, 24(2): 200-206. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.015
Objective Findings from the previous studies have suggested a relationship between ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP-1) or plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 (PC-1) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (K121Q, rs1044498) and genetic susceptibility to obesity. However, such relationship is not reproduced by some currently available studies. In this context, the present study is aimed to quantitatively analyze the association of K121Q variant with obesity in all published case-control studies in European adult populations. Methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI web of science databases were retrieved. The studies evaluating the association of ENPP1/PC1 gene K121Q polymorphism with obesity were included, in which sufficient data were presented to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (Cls). Results Ten case-control studies meeting the inclusion criteria identified a total of 24,324 subjects including 11,372 obese and 12,952 control subjects. The meta-analysis results showed a statistically significant association of K121Q with obesity [OR (95%Cl): 1.25 (1.04-1.52) P=0.021] under a recessive model of inheritance (QQ vs. KK+KQ) without heterogeneity or publication bias. Conclusions The results from the present study have indicated that ENPP1/PC1 Q121 variant may increase the risk of obesity and that more well-designed studies based on a larger population will be required to further evaluate the role of ENPP1/PC1 gene K121Q, polymorphism in obesity and other related metabolic syndromes.