2011 Vol. 24, No. 4

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Original Articles
Nutritional Status of Children during and post-Global Economic Crisis in China
CHEN ChunMing, HE Wu, WANG YuYing, DENG LiNa, JIA FengMei
2011, 24(4): 321-328. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.001
Objective To describe the impact of the global economic crisis on the nutritional status of children in China during and after the crisis.Methods Data from 1990 to 2010 were sourced from the National Food and Nutrition Surveillance System.Approximately 16 000 children under 5 years old were selected using a stratified random cluster method from 40 surveillance sites.Anthropometric and hemoglobin measurements for children under 5 were conducted.Nutritional status was determined according to WHO child growth standards.Results Prevalence of underweight and stunting in children under 5 had a downward trend.Underweight prevalence was close to normal (less than 5%),with prevalence of stunting 12.6% in 2009 and 12.1% in 2010 in rural areas.Prevalence of stunting in infants under 6 months and 6-12 months old in poorer rural areas increased from 5.7%-9.1% and 6.7%-12.5%,respectively,in 2008-2009.This trend also continued post-crisis in 2010.Prevalence of stunting in children left behind by mothers was 20%-30% higher than in children the same age in general and poorer rural areas.Prevalence of anemia in children did not change in rural areas,but prevalence of anemia in all age groups increased in poorer rural areas,especially in children under 24 months old.Level reached 30%-40% in 2009,and fluctuated in 2010.Conclusion The nutritional status of children under 5 was comparatively stable during and after the global economic crisis,attributable to the Chinese government's policy response.The nutritional status in poorer rural areas fluctuated in response to the economic crisis and,thus,relevant action and intervention must be taken immediately to help the most vulnerable population in poorer rural areas.A proper national nutritional strategy for children under 2 years old,including nutrition supplementation for pregnant women and in-home fortification for complementary feeding,should be initiated.
Health Inequalities during 20 Years of Rapid Economic Development in China (1980-2000): A Mortality Analysis
ZHENG XiaoYing, SONG XinMing, CHEN Gong, YOU YunZhong, REN Qiang, LIU JuFen, ZHANG Lei, TAN LingFang, WEI JiHong, CHEN QiuYuan
2011, 24(4): 329-334. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.002
Objective To examine the influence of China's economic reforms on population health and regional mortality rates.Methods Longitudinal study measuring the mortality trends and their regional variations.Using data from the three most recent national censuses,we used the model life table to adjust the mortality levels within the population for each census,and to calculate life expectancy.We then examined the variation in patterns of mortality and population health by economic status,region and gender from 1980-2000.Results Life expectancy varied with economic status,province,and gender.Results showed that,although life expectancy in China had increased overall since the early 1980s,regional differences became more pronounced.Life expectancy for populations who live in the eastern coastal provinces are greater than those in the western regions.Conclusion Differences in life expectancy are primarily related to differences in regional economic development,which in turn exacerbate regional health inequalities.Therefore,it is necessary to improve economic development in less developed regions and to improve health policies and the public health system that address the needs of everyone.
Nonfatal Child Pedestrian Injury in Two Urban Cities of Guangdong Province,China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey
MA WenJun, NIE ShaoPing, XU HaoFeng, XU YanJun, XIE HuiYan, ZHANG YuRun
2011, 24(4): 335-342. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.003
Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics of nonfatal child pedestrian injuries and provide information to help understand an important public-health problem.Methods This was a school-based,cross-sectional questionnaire survey.The sample (42 750 children)was obtained from two urban cities of Guangdong Province,China,using multi-stage randomized sampling.Information was collected by the respondents self-reporting in the classroom.Results The incidence rate of nonfatal child pedestrian injuries in the cities was 2.0%.Boys had a higher incidence rate (2.6%) than girls (1.4%).Compared to other children,those aged 10 years are at the highest risk.The primary places of occurrence were sidewalks,residential roads,and crosswalks.High-risk behavior of the children immediately prior to injury included mid-block crossings,playing on roads,and crossing on red lights.The major vehicles that caused pedestrian injuries were bicycles,car or vans,and motorcycles.Bruises,fractures,and injuries to the internal organs were the top three types of injuries.Almost 40% of victims were hospitalized,and nearly 30% of the victims suffered long-term disabilities.Conclusion This study shows that nonfatal child pedestrian injuries are a very serious public-health problem in the urban cities of Guangdong.Based on the epidemiological characteristics,prevention strategies and further research should be carried out to reduce the occurrence of injuries.
Estimation and Projection of the HIV Epidemic Trend among the Migrant Population in China
MENG XiaoJun, WANG Lu, Susan CHAN, Kathleen Heather REILLY, PENG ZhiHang, GUO Wei, DING GuoWei, DING ZhengWei, QIN QianQian
2011, 24(4): 343-348. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.004
Objective The migrant population is a vulnerable group for HIV infection in China.Understanding potential epidemic trends among migrants is critical for developing HIV preventative measures in this population.Methods The Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) model was used to process prefecture and county-level surveillance data to generate HIV prevalence and epidemic trends for migrant populations in China.Results The prevalence of HIV among migrants in 2009 was estimated at 0.075% (95% CI:0.042%,0.108%) in China.The HIV epidemic among migrants is likely to increase over the next 5 years,with the prevalence expected to reach 0.110%(95% CI:0.070%,0.150%) by 2015.Conclusion Although the 2009 estimates for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China indicate a slower rate of increase compared with the national HIV/AIDS epidemic,it is estimated to persistently increase among migrants over the next 5 years.Migrants will have a strong impact on the overall future of the HIV epidemic trend in China and evidence-based prevention and monitoring efforts should be expanded for this vulnerable population.
Surveillance of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Mainland China (2008-2009)
ZHU Qi, HAO YuanTao, MA JiaQi, YU ShiCheng, WANG Yu
2011, 24(4): 349-356. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.005
Objective Since HFMD was designated as a class C communicable disease in May 2008,18 months surveillance data have been accumulated to December 2009.This article was to describe the distribution of HFMD for age,sex,area,and time between 2008 and 2009,to reveal the characteristics of the epidemic.Methods We analyzed weekly reported cases of HFMD from May 2008 to December 2009,and presented data on the distribution of age,sex,area and time.A discrete Poisson model was used to detect spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD.Results More than 1 065 000 cases of HFMD were reported in Mainland China from May 2008 to December 2009 (total incidence:12.47 per 10 000).Male incidence was higher than female for all ages and 91.9% of patients were <5 years old.The incidence was highest in Beijing,Shanghai,Zhejiang and Hainan.The highest peak of HFMD cases was in April and the number of cases remained high from April to August.The spatial-temporal distribution detected four clusters.Conclusion Children <5 years old were susceptible to HFMD and we should be aware of their vulnerability.The incidence was higher in urban than rural areas,and an annual pandemic usually starts in April.
Evaluation of the Factorial Method for Determination of Energy Expenditure in 16 Young Adult Women Living in China
LIU JianMin, PIAO JianHua, SUN Rui, TIAN Ying, YANG XiaoGuang
2011, 24(4): 357-363. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.006
Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the factorial method for estimating energy needs in individuals living in China.Methods Sixteen healthy female adults aged 22.1+1.2 years with a body mass index (kg/m2) of 20.4+1.7 were selected as subjects.In free-living conditions,energy expenditure (EE) was determined by using the factorial method.At the same time,the doubly labeled water method (DLW) was also used to measure energy expenditure of the subjects and served as the criterion method.EE predicted by the factorial method (EEfactorlal) was compared with the simultaneous measurement of EE by the validated DLW method (EEDLW).Results There was excellent agreement between EEfactorlal (7.46+0.59 M J/d) and EEDLW (7.64 + 0.49 MJ/d),with a difference of -2.6+4.9% (-0.18+0.36 MJ/d).No significant differences were found between the two methods.EEfactorial was highly correlated with EEDLW (r=0.795,P<0.001) and a good agreement for individuals was found by using the Bland and Altman test.Conclusion The factorial method gives satisfactory estimates of EE for both groups and individuals living in China.
Identification of Estrogen-associated Intrinsic Aging Genes in Chinese Han Female Skin by cDNA Microarray Technology
YAN Wei, ZHAO ZhenMin, ZHANG LiLi, WANG DunMei, YAN Li, YIN NingBei, WU Di, ZHANG Feng
2011, 24(4): 364-373. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.007
Objective Estrogens play an important role in intrinsic skin aging.The associated changes in global gene expression are poorly understood.Methods We used the Illumina microarray platform to obtain comprehensive gene expression profiles in female Chinese Han skin,and confirmed the data by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR).Results We found 244 genes significantly related to estrogen-associated intrinsic skin aging,and some of these genes were confirmed by Q-RT-PCR.We also performed functional analysis by both Gene Ontology annotation and enrichment of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)pathways database.The functional analysis revealed 11 biological pathways (including the KEGG pathways,the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and metabolic pathways),that were associated with multiple cellular functions which may be involved in intrinsic skin aging.Conclusion This study suggests that estrogen-associated intrinsic skin aging is a complicated biological process involving many genes and pathways.
The Effect of 2,5-hexanedione on Myelin Protein Zero Expression, and Its Mitigation Using Ginkgo Biloba Extract
ZHAO Lei, LIU QingJun, CHEN Hong, DUAN HuaWei, BIN Ping, LIU Qing, NIU Yong, DAI YuFei, ZHENG YuXin
2011, 24(4): 374-382. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.008
Objective To investigate the role of myelin protein zero (P0) in 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD)-induced peripheral nerve injury,and the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb761) on 2,5-HD-induced toxic peripheral neuropathy.Methods After 4 weeks of treatment with 2,5-HD at different doses (50,100,200,400 mg/kg) in rats,changes in the levels of P0 in rat sciatic nerves was investigated,and the effect of Egb761 on 2,5-HD-induced toxic peripheral neuropathy was studied.Results The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) permeability of the sciatic nerve increased,and the expression of P0 mRNA and P0 protein decreased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with 2,5-HD for 4 weeks.Pretreatment with Egb761 protected against BNB interruption,and inhibited P0 mRNA and protein reduction during 2,5-HD treatment.Pretreatment with Egb761 significantly reduced loss of body weight (P<0.01) and mitigated gait abnormalities (2.85±0.22) induced by 400 mg/kg 2,5-HD (P<0.01).It also reduced the signs of neurotoxicity induced by 2,5-HD.Conclusion 2,5-HD inhibited the expression of P0 in a dose-dependent manner,and this may be an important mechanism by which toxic peripheral neuropathy is induced by 2,5-HD.Egb761 has a protective effect against 2,5-HD-induced peripheral neurotoxicity in rats.
Study of the Toxicity of 1-Bromo-3-Chloro-5,5-Dimethylhydantoin to Zebrafish
LI WanFang, WEI JinFeng, JIN HongTao, HUANG MingFang, ZHANG JingXuan, LI ChengHe, CHEN ChaoJie, LIU Chang, WANG AiPing
2011, 24(4): 383-390. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.009
Objective 1-Bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (BCDMH) is a solid oxidizing biocide for water disinfection.The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of BCDMH on zebrafish.Methods The developmental toxicity of BCDMH on zebrafish embryos and the dose-effect relationship was determined.The effect of BCDMH exposure on histopathology and tissue antioxidant activity of adult zebrafish were observed over time.Results Exposure to 4 mg/L BCDMH post-fertilization was sufficient to induce a number of developmental malformations,such as edema,axial malformations,and reductions in heart rate and hatching rate.The no observable effects concentration of BCDMH on zebrafish embryo was 0.5 mg/L.After 96 h exposure,the 50% lethal concentration (95% confidence interval (CI)) of BCDMH on zebrafish embryo was 8.10 mg/L (6.15-11.16 mg/L).The 50% inhibitory concentration (95% CI) of BCDMH on hatching rate was 7.37 mg/L (6.33-8.35 mg/L).Histopathology showed two types of responses induced by BCDMH,defensive and compensatory.The extreme responses were marked hyperplasia of the gill epithelium with lamellar fusion and epidermal peeling.The histopathologic changes in the gills after 10 days exposure were accompanied by significantly higher catalase activity and lipid peroxidation.Conclusion These results have important implications for studies on the toxicity and use of BCDMH and its analogs.
Troglitazone Induced Apoptosis via PPARy Activated POX-induced ROS Formation in HT29 Cells
WANG Jing, LV XiaoWen, SHI JiePing, HU XiaoSong, DU YuGuo
2011, 24(4): 391-399. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.010
Objective In order to investigate the potential mechanisms in troglitazone-induced apoptosis in HT29 cells,the effects of PPARY and POX-induced ROS were explored.Methods [3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay,Annexin V and PI staining using FACS,plasmid transfection,ROS formation detected by DCFH staining,RNA interference,RT-PCR & RT-QPCR,and Western blotting analyses were employed to investigate the apoptotic effect of troglitazone and the potential role of PPARY pathway and POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells.Results Troglitazone was found to inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by induction of apoptosis.During this process,mitochondria related pathways including ROS formation,POX expression and cytochrome c release increased,which were inhibited by pretreatment with GW9662,a specific antagonist of PPARY.These results illustrated that POX upregulation and ROS formation in apoptosis induced by troglitazone was modulated in PPARY-dependent pattern.Furthermore,the inhibition of ROS and apoptosis after POX siRNA used in troglitazone-treated HT29 cells indicated that POX be essential in the ROS formation and PPARy-dependent apoptosis induced by troglitazone.Conclusion The findings from this study showed that troglitazone-induced apoptosis was mediated by POX-induced ROS formation,at least partly,via PPARY activation.
Growth and Repair Potential of Three Species of Bacteria in Reclaimed Wastewater after UV Disinfection
GUO MeiTing, HUANG JingJing, HU HongYing, LIU WenJun
2011, 24(4): 400-407. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.011
Objective The growth and repair potential of three typical microorganisms in reclaimed water after UV disinfection was investigated to assess the effects of photo-reactivation and dark repair of microorganisms,and the microbial safety of reclaimed water following this procedure.Methods The growth and repair potential of Escherichia coli,a fecal coliform strain and Bacillus subtilis in the effluent of a biological wastewater treatment plant disinfected by a low-pressure UV lamp were investigated.Results Any increase in bacterial numbers in the effluent after UV disinfection was due to damage repair.Exposure to photo-reactivating light for 8-10 h after UV irradiation with a dose of 5 mJ/cm2,the highest percentage of photo-reactivation observed for E.coli and the fecal coliform strain was 29% and 15% respectively.B.subtilis showed little photo-reactivation under these conditions.The percentage of photo-reactivation was related to the UV dose and the photo-reactivating time,and a function was developed to forecast the final concentrations of E.coli and the fecal coliform strain after UV disinfection with possible photo-reactivation.Conclusion Different species of bacteria displayed different responses to UV light and different repair potentials.The repair of indigenous bacteria in wastewater needs to be investigated in future work.
Modulation of Behavior and Glutamate Receptor mRNA Expression in Rats after Sub-chronic Administration of Benzo(a)pyrene
TANG Qian, XIA YinYin, CHENG ShuQun, TU BaiJie
2011, 24(4): 408-414. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.012
Objective The present study aimed to test whether exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] affects spatial learning and short-term memory by modulating the expression of the Gria1 and Grin2a glutamate receptor subunit genes in the hippocampus.Methods Thirty-six 21-24-day-old,male rats were randomly assigned into high-,medium-,and low-dose toxin exposure groups (6.25,2.5,and 1 mg/kg,respectively) and a control group,each containing nine rats.The behavioral performance of adult rats exposed to sub-chronic administration of B(a)P was monitored by learning and memory tests (Morris water maze).Real-time PCR assays were used to quantify Gria1 and Grin2a gene expression in the hippocampus.ResultsAt medium and high doses,B(a)P impaired spatial learning performance.The crossing-platform-location frequency and the time spent swimming in the platform area,which both relate to short-term memory,were significantly decreased in B(a)P-treated rats compared with controls.The level of Gria1 mRNA increased 2.6-5.9-fold,and the level of Grin2a mRNA increased 10-14.5-fold,with a greater fold increase associated with higher doses of B(a)P.Conclusion We demonstrated that sub-chronic administration of B(a)P inhibits spatial learning and short-term memory,and increases Gria1 and Grin2a expression in the hippocampus.This suggests a relationship of B(a)P exposure levels with Gria1 and Grin2a expression and impairment of short-term and spatial memory.
Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo Genotoxicity of Almond Skins
ZHANG XiaoPeng, XIANG Qian, CUI WenMing, JIA XuDong, LI Ning
2011, 24(4): 415-421. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.013
Objective It aims to study potential genotoxicity of almond skins.Methods A bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed on S.typhimurium strains TA97,TA98,TA100,TA102,and TA1535 in the absence or presence of S-9 mixture at a dose range of 312.5 to 5 000 μg/plate.A micronucleus test and a mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration tests were performed in Swiss Albino (CD-1) mice at doses of 625,1 250,and 2 500 mg/kg bw used.Results Almond skins exerted no mutagenic activity in various bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium in either the absence or the presence of metabolic activation at all doses tested.Various doses of almond skins did not affect the proportions of immature to total erythrocytes,the number of micronuclei in the immature erythrocytes,or the number of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations of Swiss albino mice.Conclusion Almond skins are not genotoxic under the conditions of the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay and two in vivo tests - micronucleus test and mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test,which supports the safety of almond skins for dietary consumption.
Identification of Ubiquitinated Proteins from Human Multiple Myeloma U266 Cells by Proteomics
JIA HongLing, LIU ChaoWu, GE Feng, XIAO ChuanLe, LU ChunHua, WANG Tong, HE QingYu
2011, 24(4): 422-430. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.014
Objective To identify ubiquitinated proteins from complex human multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells,a malignant disorder of differentiated human B cells.Methods Employing a globally proteomic strategy combining of immunoprecipitation,LC-MS/MS and SCX-LC-MS analysis to identified ubiquitination sites,which were identified by detecting signature peptides containing a GG-tag (114.1 Da) and an LRGG-tag (383.2 Da).Results In total,52 ubiquitinated proteins containing 73 ubiquitination sites of which 14 and 59 sites contained LRGG-tag and GG-tag were identified,respectively.Conclusion Classification analysis by of the proteins identified in the study based on the PANTHER showed that they were associated with multiple functional groups.This suggested the involvement of many endogenous proteins in the ubiquitination in MM.
Molecular Characteristics and Phylogenetic Analysis of N Gene of Human Derived Rabies Virus
CAI Liang, TAO XiaoYan, LIU YunZhi, ZHANG Hong, GAO LiDong, HU ShiXiong, LIU FuQiang, LI Hao, SHEN XinXin, LIU JiaHui, WANG ShiQing, TANG Qing
2011, 24(4): 431-437. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.015
Objective To investigate the relationship between the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic evolution of rabies N gene.Methods Saliva samples were collected from rabies cases,and RT-PCR was used to amplify the N gene of rabies virus with the specific primers.The amplifying product of RT-PCR was cloned to pUCm-T vector and transformed into E.coli XL1-Blue and then the blue-white selection,PCR screening and gene sequencing were carried out to identify the positive clones.Finally,ExPASy and other bioinformatics softwares were used to analyze and predict the structure and biological characteristics of the N genome.Results The amplification product of RT-PCR was 1 353 bp,the recombinant plasmid pUCm-T/N was constructed,the whole length of the N gene open reading frame was composed of 1 353 nucleotide residues to code 450 amino acids (20 kinds),the accession number submitted to the Genbank was HM756692,its sequence homology of nucleotides and amino acids compared with the vaccine strain CTN-1-V was 90% and 99% respectively.The evolutionary analysis showed that the isolated strain belonged to genotype Ⅰ with certain geographic regionality.Conclusion The characteristics investigation and bioinformatics analysis of Hunan0806 N gene will provide fundament data to reveal the significance of the N gene characteristics for rabies epidemiology and its prevention & control.
The Effects of Electromagnetic Pulse on the Protein Levels of Tight Junction Associated-Proteins in the Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, Heart, Lung, and Testis of Rats
QIU LianBo, CHEN Chen, DING GuiRong, ZHOU Yan, ZHANG MengYao
2011, 24(4): 438-444. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.016
Objective To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex,hippocampus,heart,lung,and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP).Methods Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups.The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz.The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1,occludin,actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting.Results ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05).No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin.ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05),and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05);however,actin was unaffected.ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05),occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05),and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05).ZO-1,occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05).ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05),but actin showed no significant change.Conclusion Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins,particularly ZO-1,in the organs of adult male rats,which may induce changes in barrier structure and function.
An Assessment of Androgenic/Anti-androgenic Effects of GH Transgenic Carp by Hershberger Assay
LIU YuMei, ZHANG WenZhong, YONG Ling, ZHAO XiaoHong, JIA XuDong, LI Ning
2011, 24(4): 445-449. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.04.017
Objective To evaluate the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp in male rats.Methods Hershberger assay was carried out in castrated male SD rats aged 4-5 weeks.Testosterone propionate (TP) (0.4 mg/kg BW) was administrated for a positive control,GH transgenic carp (3.0 g/kg BW)+TP (0.4 mg/kg BW),parental carp (3.0 g/kg BW) + TP (0.4 mg/kg BW),and flutamide (Flu) (3.0 g/kg BW) were used for negative controls,and vehicle was administered orally for a blank control.All groups were administrated for 10 consecutive days.At the end of the test,animals were anesthetized,then weights of accessory sex organ were measured.Serum testosterone (T),luteinizing hormone (LH),and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels were detected.Results The weights ratios of the accessory sex organs and body weights showed no significant differences between the solvent control and the GH transgenic carp-treated groups.Serum concentrations of FSH,LH,and T of the rats treated with GH transgenic carp + TP showed no significant changes,compared with those treated with TP only.Conclusion GH transgenic carp does not have any androgenic agonist or antagonist properties in vivo screening tests.