2011 Vol. 24, No. 5

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Original Artieles
Earlier Menarche Can Be an Indicator of More Body Fat: Study of Sexual Development and Waist Circumference in Chinese Girls
GUO XiaoYan, JI ChengYe
2011, 24(5): 451-458. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.001
Objective This paper aims to study the relationship between body fat and sexual development in Chinese girls with different waist circumference.Methods Six thousand one hundred and fifty six girls aged 6-19 were sampled.Their body weight,height,waist circumference,percentage of body fat and secondary sex characteristics were measured.All the subjects were divided into three groups:low class waist circumference,moderate class waist circumference and high class waist circumference.The menarche percentages were analyzed by using the status method.The menarche ages were analyzed by using the retrospective method.Estimates for mean age at entry into a pubertal stage and menarche were calculated by a probit analysis.Results The incidences of moderate class and high class waist circumstance were 20.94% and 25.27%,respectively.The sexual development of the former was earlier than that of the latter.The percentages of the menarche were detected as high class>moderate class>low class.The menarche ages were expressed as high class<moderate class<low class.Conclusion A close association is found between the waist circumference and sexual development,especially the menarche age.Girls with high class waist circumference are more vulnerable to earlier menarche and excess body fat.It is important to control the occurrence of central obesity through monitoring the change of waist circumference in puberty for girls' health.
Pubertal Hypertension is a Strong Predictor for the Risk of Adult Hypertension
2011, 24(5): 459-466. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.002
Objective To assess and compare the predictive effects of hypertension before puberty and during puberty on adult hypertension.Methods A total of 412 adults from the "Beijing children and adolescents blood pressure (BP) study" cohort were followed up in a clinical examination in 2005.Systolic and diastolic BP,height,and weight in childhood were measured at a baseline survey in 1987.The participants were divided into pre-puberty and puberty sub-cohorts according to their pubertal development stage at baseline.Information on adult BP,anthropometric indices and life style were collected through questionnaire and physical examination.BP changes and the predictive effect on adult hypertension were compared between the two sub-cohorts.Correlation of BP levels between 1987 and 2005 was examined through linear regression models.Results From childhood to adulthood,the regression coefficients of systolic BP were similar in the two sub-cohorts (both β=0.34,P<0.001),while the coefficient of diastolic BP was larger in the pubertal cohort (β=0.31,P<0.001) compared with the pre-pubertal cohort (β=0.12,P=0.017).Fifty percent of children with pubertal hypertension became hypertensive adults,while pre-pubertal hypertension resulted in 34.3%.After adjustment for sex,age,family history of hypertension,obesity in childhood,and adulthood,pubertal hypertension predicted a higher risk of adult hypertension than pre-pubertal hypertension,with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 10.00 (3.03-33.07) and 2.71 (0.83-8.85),respectively.Conclusion Our results suggest that hypertension during puberty is likely to result in adult hypertension.
Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Yi People between 1996 and 2007: An Yi Migrant Study
SHAN GuangLiang, WEI DaYing, WANG ChunXiu, ZHANG JianHua, Wang Bin, MA MingJu, PAN Li, YU Tao, XUE Fang, WU ZhengLai
2011, 24(5): 467-474. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.003
Objective To evaluate trends of overweight and obesity prevalence between 1996 and 2007 in Yi farmers and Yi migrants.Methods An Yi migrant study was conducted in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,China from 1996 to 2007.Data were collected with identical methods,including standardized questionnaire and body measurements.Results Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from 20.02 in 1996 to 22.36 in 2007,among Yi farmers,which was significantly different from those among Yi migrants (23.67 in 2007 and 20.90 in 1996) (P<0.05).Prevalence of obesity rose from 1.21% in 1996 to 4.55 % in 2007 (OR=1.15,P<0.001) in Yi migrants,while that in Yi farmers from none in 1996 to 0.12 % in 2007 (P>0.05).Prevalence of overweight rose significantly to 26.24 % in 2007 from 17.24 % in 1996 (OR=1.06,P<0.001) in Yi migrants,while that in Yi farmers from 1.29 % in 1996 to 4.45 % in 2007 (OR=1.14,P<0.001).Yi migrants appeared to have a 5.52-fold higher risk on developing overweight and obesity than Yi farmers have.Conclusion The Yi migrants had a steeper increase of overweight with year and consequently caused more obesity.Change in lifestyle may contribute most likely to higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in Yi migrants.
Cigarette Smoking Increases Risk for Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Men-Shanghai Diabetes Study
ZHU YunXia, ZHANG MingLiang, HOU XuHong, LU JunXi, PENG LiangPu, GU HuiLin, WANG Chen, JIA WeiPing
2011, 24(5): 475-482. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.004
Objective To determine whether smoking increases the risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese men.Methods A total of 693 men with no MetS at baseline were followed for 2.9-5.5 years.Subjects were divided into nonsmokers,ex-smokers,and current smokers according to baseline smoking status.Results After adjusting for age,education level,alcohol intake,fasting plasma insulin,HOMA-IR index,and BMI at baseline and weight change,current smokers were dose-dependently associated with increased risk for developing new MetS compared with nonsmokers.The odds ratio (OR) was 2.131 (95% CI,1.264,3.592; P<0.01) for the NCEPIII definition or 3.083 (95% CI,1.807,5.295; P<0.01) for the JCDCG definition of MetS.Ex-smokers who had quit for ≥13 years significantly decreased the risk for developing new MetS defined by the JCDCG definition.Compared with nonsmokers,current smokers were significantly associated with increased incidence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C.Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for developing MetS in Chinese men after adjusting for age,education level,alcohol intake,fasting plasma insulin,HOMA-IR,BMI,and weight change.This could be due to an increased incidence of dyslipidemia.Smoking cessation for >13 years decreased the risk for developing MetS defined by the JCDCG definition.
Mortality of Dementia and Its Major Subtypes in Urban and Rural Communities of Beijing
WEN HongBo, ZHANG ZhenXin, HUANG JueBin, DUAN LeiLei, WANG QingHua
2011, 24(5): 483-490. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.005
Objective To identify the mortality and epidemiological pattern of dementia and its various major subtypes among urban and rural senior residents in Beijing.Methods Based on Beijing's dementia prevalence survey among residents aged 55 years and above in 1997,respondents were selected by stratified multiple-stage cluster sampling and 12 urban communities and 17 rural village communities were randomly sampled then follow-up in 2001.COX regression was used to analyze relative risks controlling confounding factors on deaths of dementia cases.Results The mortality of dement patients in the 55-64 age-group was 0.82/100 person-year.The age-standardized mortality of dement cases was 0.90/100 person-year.The mortality in the 65 and above age-group was 1.44/100 person-year,and the age-standardized mortality was 1.56/100 person-year.Among AD cases,the above two mortalities were 0.35/100 and 0.42/100 person-year respectively,and among VaD cases,0.34/100 and 0.36/100 person-year respectively.For both AD and VaD cases,their mortality increased with age.Region,gender and age were more significant to survival of AD cases.Conclusion One major subtype of dementia,AD,among elderly urban and rural residents in Beijing,has a different mortality and epidemiological pattern from VaD.
Human GSTs Polymorphisms in the Hakka Population of South China and Their Associations with Family History of Several Chronic Diseases
PAN ShangXia, YANG XingFen, YANG LinQing, WEI Qing, YANG Ying, XU GuangNing, LIN ZhongNing, HUANG JunMing
2011, 24(5): 491-498. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.006
Objective To investigate the associations of genetic polymorphisms in GSTs genes of the Hakka population of south China with family histories of certain chronic diseases.Methods Five hundred and thirty-nine healthy Hakka natives of Meizhou city of Guangdong province in south China were involved.The genotypes of GSTM1,GSTT1,GSTP1,GSTM3,and GSTA1 were determined using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The observed polymorphisms were analyzed by Chi-square and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests.Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of the distributions of GST genotypes with family history of certain chronic diseases.Results The distributions of polymorphisms in GSTP1,GSTM3,and GSTA1 conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Compared to the Cantonese,the Hakka had a lower distribution of the GSTM3 deletion genotype (3.15% vs.11.9%).A weak association was observed between the GSTM1 genetic polymorphism and family history of hypertension.Alcohol drinkers had a higher frequency of the null-GSTM1 genotype,while smokers had a higher frequency of a variant GSTP1 genotype.Conclusion The results suggest that the Hakka is a special and distinctive Han Chinese ethnic group with different GSTs genetic polymorphisms.Smoking and drinking might be related to the distribution of GST genotypes.
Ground-based Observations of Ultraviolet and Total Solar Radiation in Shenyang, Northeast China
GAO Qian, HU LiWen, GONG HuiZhi, GAO Na, YU JiaMing, WANG Yang, CHU Chtm, YANG Hui, LIU Yang
2011, 24(5): 499-505. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.007
Objective This work explores the diurnal variation of Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and total solar radiation (TSR) in northeast China,using daily observations of UVR and TSR in Shenyang.Methods UVR and TSR measurements were carried out from March 1st,2006 to December 31st,2009 in Shenyang,Liaoning province,China (41°51′ N,123°27′ E).Results Both TSR and UVR showed seasonal variation,reaching the highest levels in summer and the lowest in winter.They showed the greatest fluctuation in summer and autumn.The irradiance of TSR and UVR on clear days around the equinoxes and solstices increased substantially compared with the mean seasonal irradiance,especially in autumn.The whole day accumulated dose of UVR in winter was far less than that during the middle part of a summer day (i.e.between 10:00 and 14:00).It was also less than the accumulated summer dose of morning and afternoon (i.e.between 8:00 and 10:00 and 14:00and 16:00).Conclusion The instant irradiance and daily accumulated amount of UVR are low in Shenyang,especially in autumn and winter.Thus concern about the health effects arising because shortage of UVR in northeast China is warranted.
Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Elderly Chinese Population in Shenyang of China
JIA LiHong, SHEN XueLi, FAN Rui, SUN Yan, PAN XingYue, YANH HongMei, LIU Lu
2011, 24(5): 506-511. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.008
Objective The paper aims to evaluate the risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in elderly Chinese population in Shenyang,a northeast city of China.Methods A case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for the prevalence of AMD.Ninety three AMD patients diagnosed by a complete ophthalmic examination were recruited as cases from the outpatient departments of two eye hospitals in Shenyang,while 108 normal subjects of similar age and sex were recruited as controls.A questionnaire was administered among both cases and controls.Results AMD patients aged 60 years and older accounted for 75.3%.There were significantly higher educational levels,shorter smoking history,less sunlight exposure and cataract,and higher proportion of antioxidants intake in controls than in AMD patients.The frequency of intake of fruits,legumes,fish and shrimps was significantly higher in controls than in AMD patients.In a binary logistic regression analysis,smoking and cataract were the risk factors for AMD (OR:4.44,95% CI:2.27-8.69; OR:4.47,95%CI:2.26-8.85 respectively).The high educational background was a protective factor for AMD (OR:0.761,95% CI:0.51-0.98).Conclusion A low educational background,smoking and cataract are associated with a higher prevalence of AMD.
Milk Consumption and Lactose Intolerance in Adults
QIAO Rong, HUANG ChengYu, DU HuiZhang, ZENG Guo, LI Ling, YE Sheng
2011, 24(5): 512-517. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.009
Objective To investigate relations between milk consumption and lactose intolerance (LI) in adults and to explore the effect of milk consumption on lactase activity.Methods Total of 182 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited and interviewed by questionnaires,and their accumulative cow's milk intake (AMI) was calculated.LI was evaluated by hydrogen breath test (HBT).Results A negative correlation was found between AMI and severity of observed LI symptom (r=-0.2884; P<0.05).Binary logistic regression analysis showed a negative correlation between LI and duration and frequency of milk consumption (OR,0.317 and 0.465,respectively; both P<0.05) and a positive correlation between LI and amount of milk consumed per sitting (OR,6.337; P<0.05).Conclusion LI is related to various milk consumption behaviors.Most Chinese adults with LI may tolerate moderate milk consumption <160 mL.
Diurnal Temperature Range as a Novel Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death
CHU Chen, ZHOU WenHao, GUI YongHao, KAN HaiDong
2011, 24(5): 518-522. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.010
Objective To assess the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and sudden infant death (SID) between 2001 and 2004 in Shanghai,China.Methods We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the percent increase of SID associated with changes in DTR after adjustment for daily weather conditions (temperature and relative humidity) and outdoor air pollution.Results DTR was significantly associated with daily SID.An increase of 1℃ in the current-day (10) and in the 2-day moving average (L01) DTR corresponds to a 1.56% (95% CI:0.97%,2.15%) and a 1.89% (95%CI:1.17%,2.60%) increase in SID,respectively.Conclusion An increased DTR was associated with an increased risk of SID in Shanghai.More studies are needed to understand the effect of DTR on infant deaths.
Immune Responses in Wild-type Mice Against Prion Proteins Induced Using a DNA Prime-Protein Boost Strategy
HAN YanLing, LI Yuan, SONG Juan, WANG Ying, SHI Qi, CHEN Cao, ZHANG BaoYun, GUO Yan, LI ChaoPing, HAN Jun, DONG XiaoPing
2011, 24(5): 523-529. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.011
Objective To break immune tolerance to prion (PrP) proteins using DNA vaccines.Methods Four different human prion DNA vaccine candidates were constructed based on the pcDNA3.1 vector:PrP-WT expressing wild-type PrP,Ubiq-PrP expressing PrP fused to ubiquitin,PrP-LII expressing PrP fused to the lysosomal integral membrane protein type II lysosome-targeting signal,and PrP-ER expressing PrP locating the ER.Using a prime-boost strategy,three-doses of DNA vaccine were injected intramuscularly into Balb/c mice,followed by two doses of PrP protein.Two weeks after the last immunization,sera and spleens were collected and PrP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses evaluated by ELISA and ELISPOT tests.Results Higher levels of serum PrP antibodies were detected in mice vaccinated using the strategy of DNA priming followed by protein boosting.Of these,WT-PrP,Ubiq-PrP,and PrP-LII induced significantly higher humoral responses.ELISPOT tests showed markedly increased numbers of IFN-γ-secreting T cells in mice vaccinated using the strategy of DNA priming followed by protein boosting after stimulation with recombinant PrP23-90 and PrP23-231.PrP-ER induced the strongest T-cell response.Conclusion Prion vaccines can break tolerance to PrP proteins and induce PrP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.
Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity of an Avian H9N2 Influenza Virus Isolated from Human
LIU LiQi, Li Zi, ZHOU JianFang, ZHU Yun, DONG Jie, ZHAO Xiang, GUO JunFeng, SHU YueLong
2011, 24(5): 530-536. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.012
Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and immunogenicity of H9N2 influenza virus A/Guangzhou/333/99 (a reassortant of (G1 and G9 viruses isolated from a female patient in 1999) in a mouse model of infection.Methods Mice were infected with increasing virus titers.Viral load in the lungs and trachea was determined by EID50 assay.Pulmonary histopathology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Anti-HI antibody titers and T-cell responses to viral HA were determined by ELISPOT and confirmed by flow cytometry.Results Mice presented a mild syndrome after intranasal infection with A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2) influenza virus.Virus was detected in the trachea and lungs of mice harvested on days 3,6,and 9 post-infection.A T-cell response to viral HA was detected on day 6 and H9 HA-specific CD4+ T-cells predominated.Seroconversion was detected after 14 days and antibody persisted for at least 28 weeks.Conclusion Our results suggest that H9N2 (A/Guangzhou/333/99) can replicate in the murine respiratory tract without prior adaptation,and both humoral and cell-mediated immunity play an important role in the immune response.
Determination of Taurine in Biological Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Using 4-Fluoro-7-Nitrobenzofurazan as a Derivatizing Agent
WANG XiFeng, CHI DeFeng, SU GuanMin, LI Lin, SHAO LiHua
2011, 24(5): 537-542. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.013
Objective A highly sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with pre-column derivatization with 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan was developed for determination of taurine in biological samples,including plasma,brain,and liver.Methods The optimum derivatization reaction temperature was 70℃,and at this temperature the reaction was complete within 3 min.The derivatized taurine was separated using phosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L,pH 6.0):acetonitrile (84:16,v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min,and a column temperature of 25℃.The taurine derivatives were separated within 20 min (tR:14.5 min) and fluorometrically detected at 530 nm with excitation at 470 nm.Results The intra- and the inter-day coefficients of variation for the method were 5.3% and 7.7%,respectively.The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 μmol/L to 30.0 μmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995.Conclusion This method can be used to determine the taurine contents in plasma,brain,and liver from normal rats and human plasma.
Impact of Anthracene Addition on Microbial Community Structure in Soil Microcosms from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sites
WANG QingFeng, ZHANG ShuYing, ZOU Li, XIE ShuGuang
2011, 24(5): 543-549. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.014
Objective This paper aims to investigate the impact of anthracene addition on microbial community in agricultural soil irrigated with tap water or reclaimed wastewater.Methods The changes of microbial community were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism in combination with 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.Results A significant change in microbial community composition was observed during the biodegradation of anthracene,with dominantly enriched members from the genus Methylophilus.Conclusion This work might be useful for developing techniques for the isolation of novel putative PAH degrader.
The Protective Role of Procyanidins and Lycopene Against Mercuric Chloride Renal Damage in Rats
YANG HaiBo, XU ZhaoFa, LIU Wei, DENG Yu, XU Bin
2011, 24(5): 550-559. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.015
Objective This study aims to investigate the protection of procyanidins and lycopene from the renal damage induced by mercuric chloride.Methods Rats were treated with either procyanidins or lycopene 2h before HgCl2 subcutaneously injection,once daily treatment for 2 successive days.Results In comparison with HgCl2 group,markers of renal function such as blood urea nitrogen in serum and urinary protein were decreased to (18.45±11.63) mmol/L and (15.93±9.36) mmol/L,(4.54±0.78) g/(g·Cr) and (4.40±1.12) g/(g·Cr).N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase,lactate dehydrogenase,alkaline phosphatase in urine were depressed to (125.49±11.68) U/(g·Cr),(103.73±21.79) U/(g·Cr),(101.99±12.28) U/(g·Cr),and (113.19±23.74) U/(g·Cr),(71.14±21.80) U/(g·Cr),(73.64±21.51) U/(g·Cr)in procyanidins and lycopene groups.Indicators of oxidative stress,for example,Glutathion was reduced to (45.58±9.89) μmol/(g·pro) and (45.33±5.90) μmol/(g·pro),and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase,glutathione-peroxidase were enhanced to (43.07±10.97) U/(mg·pro) and (39.94±6.04) U/(mg·pro),(83.85±18.48) U/(mg·pro),and (85.62±12.68) U/(mg·pro).Malondialdehyde was lowered to (0.95±0.12) (μmol/g·pro) and (1.03±0.12) μmol/(g·pro) in procyanidins and lycopene groups.ROS generation was decreased by 27.63% and 16.40% and apoptosis was also decreased in procyanidins and lycopene groups respectively.Pathological changes were much better as well.Conclusion Procyanidins and Lycopene play some protective role against mercury kidney damage.
Gene Expression Changes in the Pituitary Gland of Rats Exposed to Electromagnetic Pulses
QI YuHong, LIANG Jun, HUI YanPing, DING GuiRong, LIU JunYe, SU XiaoMing, GUO GuoZhen
2011, 24(5): 560-568. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.016
Objective We examined alterations in the expression of tumorigenesis-related genes in the pituitary gland of rats exposed to electromagnetic pulses (EMP).Methods The global gene expression profiles of the pituitary gland in EMP-exposed and control groups were detected by cDNA microarray analysis.We then validated and further investigated the reduced expression of two tumorigenesis-related genes,Pten,and Jund,by assessing their mRNA and protein expression by quantitative real-time-PCR,western blotting,and immunohistochemistry in the pituitary gland of rats 6 months after exposure to EMP.Results EMP exposure induced genome-wide gene expression changes in the rat pituitary gland.There was decreased expression of the Pten and Jund mRNAs and proteins in EMP-exposed rats compared with in unexposed control animals.Conclusion EMP exposure alters the expression of tumorigenesis-related genes in the pituitary gland.These tumorigenesis-related genes are potentially involved in the development of pituitary gland tumors in rats.
Developmental Toxicity in Mice Following Paternal Exposure to Di-N-Butyl-Phthalate (DBP)
Malgorzata M. DOBRZY(N)SKA, Ewa J. TYRKIEL, Krzysztof A. PACHOCKI
2011, 24(5): 569-578. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.05.017
Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of paternal Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) exposure pre- and postnatally on F1 generation offspring,and prenatally on F2 generation offspring.Methods Male mice were exposed to either 500 mg/kg or 2000 mg/kg of DBP for 8 weeks,and mated with non-exposed females.Three-quarters of the females were sacrificed a day prior to parturition,and examined for the number of living and dead implantations,and incidence of gross malformations.Pups from the remaining females were assessed for developmental markers,growth parameters,as well as sperm quantity and quality.Results There were no changes in the fertility of parents and in intrauterine development of the offspring.Pups of DBP-exposed males demonstrated growth-retardation.Following paternal exposure to 500 mg/kg bw of DBP,there were almost twice the number of males than females born in the F1 generation.F1 generation females had a 2.5-day delay in vaginal opening.Paternal exposure to 2000 mg/kg bw of DBP increased the incidence of sperm head malformations in F1 generation males;however,there were no changes in the fertility and viability of foetuses in the F2 generation.Conclusion Paternal DBP exposure may disturb the sex ratio of the offspring,delay female sexual maturation,and deteriorate the sperm quality of F1 generation males.