2013 Vol. 26, No. 11

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Molecular Epidemiology of Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in the Mainland of China
ZHANG Yong, XU Wen Bo
2013, 26(11): 875-876. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.015
Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Involved in an Outbreak of Scarlet Fever in China, 2011
YOU Yuan Hai, SONG Yan Yang, YAN Xiao Mei, WANG Hai Bin, ZHANG Meng Han, TAO Xiao Xia, LI Lei Lei, ZHANG Yu Xin, JIANG Xi Hong, ZHANG Bing Hua, ZHOU Hao, XIAO Di, JIN Lian Mei, FENG Zi Jian, LUO Feng Ji, ZHANG Jian Zhong
2013, 26(11): 877-885. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.016
Objective To investigate molecular characterization of streptococcus pyogenes isolates involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China in 2011.
Methods Seventy-four Streptococcal pyogenes involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever were isolated from pediatric patients in the areas with high incidence in China from May to August of 2011. Emm genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were analyzed for these isolates.
Results A total of 4 different emm types were identified. Emm12 was the most prevalent type which contained four predominating PFGE patterns corresponding to four different virulence and superantigen profiles. Emm12 (79.7%) and emml (14.90 accounted for approximately 94} of all the isolates. The speA gene was all negative in emm12 isolates and positive in emml isolates. All strains were resistant to erythromycin, and 89.4% of them were resistant to erythromycin, tracycline, and clindamycin simultaneously.
Conclusion Several highly diversified clones with a high macrolide resistance rate comprise a predominant proportion of circulating strains, though no new emm type was found in this outbreak. The data provide a baseline for further surveillance of scarlet fever, which may contribute to the explanation of the outbreak and development of a GAS vaccine in China.
Analysis of Allergens in 5473 Patients with Allergic Diseases in Harbin, China
CHANG Man Li, SHAO Bing, LIU Yan Hong, LI Lu Lu, PEI Li Chun, WANG Bin You
2013, 26(11): 886-893. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.017
Objective To analyze the allergic status to common inhalant allergens and food allergens in clinical patients in Harbin in northeastern China and provide evidence to develop the prevention strategy of allergic disease.
Methods The data were collected from 5 473 patients with clinical suspected allergic diseases seeking medical care in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Among these patients, 2 530 (46.2%) were males aged 0-86 years, the youngest was only 1 month old and 2 579 (47.1%) were young children and teenagers. The serum specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 14 kinds of common allergens and serum total IgE were detected by using AllergyScreen test (Mediwiss Analytic GmbH, Moers, Germany).
Results In 5 473 subjects the positive rate of sIgE was 33.1%(n=1 813). Cow milk (6.9%) and wheat (3.1%) were the most common food allergens, followed by house dust mite mix (12.5%) and mould mix (9.4%) and the age and gender specific differences in the positive rate were significant. For the children aged<7 years the positive rates to cow milk, beef-mutton, and egg white/egg yolk were high, but the positive rates to house dust mite mix, ragweed estragon, and mould mix were low (P<0.05). For the adults the positive rates to aeroallergens were high while the rates to food allergens were low.
Conclusion The results from this study showed that the food allergens in Harbin had geographic characteristics, which support the viewpoint that the environment factors play an important role in the incidence of allergic diseases. Also, the detection of sIgE and total IgE are essential to identify relevant allergens for the purpose of early diagnosis, management and prevention of allergic disease.
Novel Species Including Mycobacterium fukienense sp. Is Found from Tuberc-ulosis Patients in Fujian Province, China, Using Phylogenetic Analysis of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus Complex
ZHANG Yuan Yuan, LI Yan Bing, HUANG Ming Xiang, ZHAO Xiu Qin, ZHANG Li Shui, LIU Wen En, WAN Kang Lin
2013, 26(11): 894-901. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.018
Objective To identify the novel species ‘Mycobacterium fukienense’ sp. nov of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus complex from tuberculosis patients in Fujian Province, China.
Methods Five of 27 clinical Mycobacterium isolates (Cls) were previously identified as M. chelonae/abscessus complex by sequencing the hsp65, rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), recA and sodA house-keeping genes commonly used to describe the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium. Clinical Mycobacterium isolates were classified according to the gene sequence using a clustering analysis program. Sequence similarity within clusters and diversity between clusters were analyzed.
Results The 5 isolates were identified with distinct sequences exhibiting 99.8% homology in the hsp65 gene. However, a complete lack of homology was observed among the sequences of the rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), sodA, and recA genes as compared with the M. abscessus. Furthermore, no match for rpoB, sodA, and recA genes was identified among the published sequences.
Conclusion The novel species, Mycobacterium fukienense, is identified from tuberculosis patients in Fujian Province, China, which does not belong to any existing subspecies of M. chelonea/abscessus complex.
Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells by Inhibiting Akt/mTOR and Activating p38-MAPK
GE Jiao, LIU Yan, LI Qiang, GUO Xia, GU Ling, MA Zhi Gui, ZHU Yi Ping
2013, 26(11): 902-911. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.019
Objective To explore the effects of resveratrol-induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells and potential molecular mechanisms.
Methods The anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol-induced, apoptosis and autophagy on T-ALL cells were detected by using MTT test, immunofluorescence, electronic microscope, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed for detecting changes of apoptosis-associated proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins and state of activation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and p38-MAPK.
Results Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-ALL cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via up regulating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and down regulating cyclin A and cyclin D1. Western blotting revealed that resveratrol significantly decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Bim, and Bad), and induced cleaved-caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. Significant increase in ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 was also detected. Furthermore, resveratrol induced significant dephosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, but enhanced specific phosphorylation of p38-MAPK which could be blocked by SB203580. When autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA, apoptosis in T-ALL cells induced by resveratrol was enhanced.
Conclusion Our findings have suggested that resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in T-ALL cells through inhibiting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. Autophagy might play a role as a self-defense mechanism in T-ALL cells treated by resveratrol. Therefore, the reasonable inhibition of autophagy in T-ALL cells may serve as a promising strategy for resveratrol induced apoptosis and can be used as adjuvant chemotherapy for T-ALL.
Echinococcus Granulosus:Suitable in vitro Protoscolices Culture Density
LIU Cong Shan, ZHANG Hao Bing, YIN Jian Hai, JIANG Bin, HAN Xiu Min
2013, 26(11): 912-915. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.020
Efficient Expression and Purification of Fc-fragment-binding Domain and Its Application to Immunoglobulin G Purification
LAO Xing Zhen, ZHOU Ya Li, ZHENG Heng
2013, 26(11): 916-919. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.021
Selenium Supplementation Alleviates Autoimmune Thyroiditis by Regulating Expression of Th1/Th2 Cytokines
TAN Long, SANG Zhong Na, SHEN Jun, WU Yun Tang, YAO Zhai Xiao, ZHANG Jin Xiang, ZHAO Na, ZHANG Wan Qi
2013, 26(11): 920-925. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.022
Acrylamide Alters Cytoskeletal Protein Level in Rat Serum
YU Su Fang, SONG Fu Ying, YI Chao, YANG Xi Wei, LI Guo Zhen, ZHANG Cui Li, ZHAO Xiu Lan, XIE Ke Qin
2013, 26(11): 926-929. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.023
Role of Fas/FasL Pathway-mediated Alveolar Macrophages Releasing Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Silicosis
YAO San Qiao, HE Qin Cheng, YUAN Ju Xiang, CHEN Jie, CHEN Gang, LU Yao, BAI Yu Ping, ZHANG Chun Min, YUAN Yang, XU Ying Jun
2013, 26(11): 930-933. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.024
HPV Infection among Uygur Women in a Rural Area of Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China
Sulaiya HUSAIYIN, Mayinuer NIYAZI, WANG Li hong, WANG Jun Jie, WANG Jian Bing, Ayeti SIMAYI, WANG Lin, Zumurelaiti, AINIWAER MA Chun Hua, Jennifer S. SMITH
2013, 26(11): 934-936. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.025
Optimized Reimbursement Scheme of China’s New Cooperative Medical System Using Monte Carlo Simulation
MENG Xue Hui, HUANG Yi Xiang, RAO Dong Ping, LIU Qing
2013, 26(11): 937-943. doi: 10.3967/bes2013.026