2013 Vol. 26, No. 10
Obesity has become a major public health concern worldwide.Obesity is a complex disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.Epidemiological studies have indicated that environmental factors,such as excessive energy intake and lack of physical activity,might contribute to the development of obesity.Genetic factors also play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity.Indeed,approximately 40％-70％ of the variation in body mass index (BMI) can be attributed to genetic factors.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide public health problem,and currently,it affects approximately 10％ of adults in the United States.Meanwhile,it also has emerged as an important social challenge in China.CKD has been reported to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases,premature death,and end-stage renal disease.Thus,it is necessary to determine the risk factors for CKD.
Pedestrian safety in China is an important but largely neglected issue,in part due to the substantial under-reporting within police data.In this study we aimed to examine changes in pedestrian fatality between 2006 and 2010 in China using non-police reported data.A multi-year study was conducted based on the mortality data during 2006-2010 from the Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) data in China.Between 2006 and 2010,the crude pedestrian mortality increased from 7.0 to 10.5 per 100 000 populations.Annual pedestrian mortality from DSP data was 13 times in 2006 and 55 times in 2010 mortality for pedestrians and passengers from police-reported data in the corresponding years.After controlling for sex,age,and urban/rural,the mortality increased by 44％ from 2006 to 2010 (adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR)=1.11,95％ Cl 1.10-1.12).The problem of pedestrian deaths is much more serious in China than that officially reported by the police.Significant and urgent efforts are needed to save lives of pedestrian in China.
In recent years,more attentions have been paid to the association between climate change and human health.Increasing and more variable global surface temperature is one of the key climatic change factors which have been consistently reported about the effect on human health.So far,more researches have revealed that temperature lead not only to direct deaths and illnesses but also to aggravation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases[1-3].Typically,the relationship between temperature and mortality or morbidity is V-,U-,or J-shaped,with optimum temperature corresponding to the lowest point in the temperature mortality curve[3-4].
A total of 7 Cronobacter strains were isolated from 703 fecal samples collected in Jinan from June 13 to December 30,2011,with the positive rate of Cronobacter spp.being 1.0％ (95％ confidence interval 0.6％-1.4％).Three Cronobacter sakazakii stains were isolated from 157 fecal samples of healthy neonates (95％ confidence interval 0.4％-5.5％).This number was slightly higher than that isolated from 273 fecal samples of healthy adults,in which 1 strain of C.sakazakii and 1 strain of Cronobacter malonaticus were isolated,and that from 173 fecal samples of adults with acute diarrhea,in which 1 strain of C.sakazakii and 1 strain of C.malonaticus were isolated,but the differences were not statistically significant (P＞0.05).The Cronobacter isolates were all from different genetic sources.It should be noted that Cronobacter carriage may cause infection under certain conditions,especially in neonates.
Inactivation and microbial regrowth of penicillin-,ampicillin-,cefalexin-,tetracycline-,chloramphenicol-,and rifampicin-resistant bacteria were studied to explore risks associated with selection and regrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after PAA disinfection.The results showed that after exposure to 20 mg/L PAA for 10 min,inactivation of ampicillin-resistant bacteria reached 2.3-log,which was significantly higher than that of total heterotrophic bacteria with a decrease of 2.0-log.In contrast,inactivation of tetracyclineresistant bacteria was significantly less efficient,reaching only 1.1-log.Chloramphenicol-and tetracycline-resistant bacteria,as well as total heterotrophic bacteria regrew more than 10 fold compared to those in the untreated wastewater sample with 22 h stilling culture after exposure to 2 or 5 mg/L PAA as for 10 min.Selection and potential regrowth of tetracycline-and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria are potential risks when utilizing PAA disinfection,which may induce the spread of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reclaimed water.
Present study deals with the straight impact of hypobaric hypoxia on the quantity and composition of some predominant fecal microflora and its functional aspects.For that,isolated fecal contents of rat were exposed to two different simulated air pressures (70 kPa and 40 kPa) for different time durations (1,3,and 5 h) and the bacterial community composition was compared with normobaric groups (101.3 kPa).It was found that the total anaerobes,Escherichia coli,Enterbacters spp.,Bifidobacterium spp.,Clostridium spp.were increased whereas total aerobes were decreased at both hypobaric treatments.The increased number of amplicon was detected in the pressure-treated groups than the control that clearly mentioned the disruption of microbiota structure at different simulated hypobaric-hypoxia.The amylase,protease,tannase,β-glucuronidase,and alkaline phosphatase activities were increased at these atmospheric pressures.Thus,the present investigation demonstrates that the hypobaric hypoxia is an important environmental factor which can strongly modulate the composition of intestinal flora as well as microflora-derived functional aspects.