2013 Vol. 26, No. 8
Relationship between Ambient Fine Particles and Ventricular Repolarization Changes and Heart Rate Variability of Elderly People with Heart Disease in Beijing, China
2013, 26(8): 629-637. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.001
Objective To explore the effects of particulate matters less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on heart repolarization/depolarization and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods We conducted a panel study for elderly subjects with heart disease in Beijing from 2007 to 2008. PM2.5 was measured at a fixed station for 20 h continuously each day while electrocardiogram (ECG) indexes of 42 subjects were also recorded repeatedly. Meteorological data was obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. A mixed linear regression model was used to estimate the associations between PM2.5 and the ECG indexes. The model was adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, day of the week and meteorology. Results Significant adverse effects of PM2.5 on ECG indexes reflecting HRV were observed statistically and the strongest effect of PM2.5 on HRV was on lag 1 day in our study. However, there were no associations between PM2.5 and ECG indexes reflecting heart repolarization/depolarization. Additionally, the effects of PM2.5 on subjects with hypertension were larger than on the subjects without hypertension. Conclusion This study showed ambient PM2.5 could affect cardiac autonomic function of the elderly people with heart disease, and subjects with hypertension appeared to be more susceptive to the autonomic dysfunction induced by PM2.5.
Application of Statistical Distribution of PM10 Concentration in Air Quality Management in 5 Representative Cities of China
2013, 26(8): 638-646. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.002
Objective To estimate the frequency of daily average PM10 concentrations exceeding the air quality standard (AQS) and the reduction of particulate matter emission to meet the AQS from the statistical properties (probability density functions) of air pollutant concentration. Methods The daily PM10 average concentration in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and Xi’an was measured from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. The PM10 concentration distribution was simulated by using the lognormal, Weibull and Gamma distributions and the best statistical distribution of PM10 concentration in the 5 cities was detected using to the maximum likelihood method. Results The daily PM10 average concentration in the 5 cities was fitted using the lognormal distribution. The exceeding duration was predicted, and the estimated PM10 emission source reductions in the 5 cities need to be 56.58%, 93.40%, 80.17%, 82.40%, and 79.80%, respectively to meet the AQS. Conclusion Air pollutant concentration can be predicted by using the PM10 concentration distribution, which can be further applied in air quality management and related policy making.
2013, 26(8): 647-654. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.003
Objective To assess the impact of the heat wave in 2005 on mortality among the residents in Guangzhou and to identify susceptible subpopulations in Guangzhou, China. Methods The data of daily number of deaths and meteorological measures from 2003 to 2006 in Guangzhou were used in this study. Heat wave was defined as≥7 consecutive days with daily maximum temperature above 35.0 °C and daily mean temperature above the 97th percentile during the study period. The excess deaths and rate ratio (RR) of mortality in the case period compared with the reference period in the same summer were calculated. Results During the study period, only one heat wave in 2005 was identified and the total number of excess deaths was 145 with an average of 12 deaths per day. The effect of the heat wave on non-accidental mortality (RR=1.23, 95%CI:1.11-1.37) was found with statistically significant difference. Also, greater effects were observed for cardiovascular mortality (RR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.13-1.59) and respiratory mortality (RR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69). Females, the elderly and people with lower socioeconomic status were at significantly higher risk of heat wave-associated mortality. Conclusion The 2005 heat wave had a substantial impact on mortality among the residents in Guangzhou, particularly among some susceptible subpopulations. The findings from the present study may provide scientific evidences to develop relevant public health policies and prevention measures aimed at reduction of preventable mortality from heat waves.
Evaluation of the Protein Requirement in Chinese Young Adults Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique
2013, 26(8): 655-662. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.004
Objective To accurately calculate the protein requirements in Chinese young adults using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Methods Nine women and ten men received a restricted daily level of protein intake (0.75, 0.82, 0.89, 0.97, and 1.05 g/kg), along with L-[1-13C]-leucine. Subjects’ protein requirement was determined by a biphasic linear regression crossover analysis of F13CO2 data. In doing so, a breakpoint at the minimal rate of appearance of 13CO2 expiration specific to each level of dietary protein was identified. This trial was registered with the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-ONC-11001407. Results The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of protein for healthy Chinese young adults were determined to be 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d), respectively, based on the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Conclusion The EAR and RNI of mixed protein are 5% and 16% that are lower than the current proposed EAR and RNI (0.92 and 1.16 g/(kg·d), respectively), as determined by the nitrogen balance method. The respective EAR and RNI recommendations of 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d) of mixed protein are estimated to be reasonable and suitable for Chinese young adults.
2013, 26(8): 663-670. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.005
Objective To evaluate the immunotoxicological effects of genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene in female BALB/c mice. Methods Female mice weighing 18-22 g were divided into five groups (10 mice/group), which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control group and positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (the proportion is 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus, white blood cell count, histological examination of immune organ, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell, serum half hemolysis value, mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected. Results No immunotoxicological effects related to the consumption of the genetically modified wheat were observed in BALB/c mice when compared with parental wheat group, common wheat group and negative control group. Conclusion From the immunotoxicological point of view, results from this study demonstrate that genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene is as safe as the parental wheat.
2013, 26(8): 675-679. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.007
2013, 26(8): 680-683. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.008