2013 Vol. 26, No. 9

Original Articles
Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation in China and Its Risk Factors
LI Ying, WU Yang Feng, CHEN Ke Ping, LI Xian, ZHANG Xing, XIE Gao Qiang, WANG Fang Zheng
2013, 26(9): 709-716. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.001
Increased Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Pre-diabetes among Middle Aged Population in Beijing, China
SHEN Li, ZHANG Yan Ge, LIU Min, WU Liu Xin, QIANG Dong Chang, SUN Xue Lei, LIU Lin
2013, 26(9): 717-725. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.002
Simulated Microgravity Conditions and Carbon Ion Irradiation Induce Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis and Sperm DNA Damage
LI Hong Yan, ZHANG Hong, MIAO Guo Ying, XIE Yi, SUN Chao, DI Cui Xia, LIU Yang
2013, 26(9): 726-734. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.003
N-hexane Alters the Maturation of Oocytes and Induces Apoptosis in Mice
LIU Jin, HUANG Lei, SUN Yan, LI Yu Chen, ZHU Jian Lin, WANG Wen Xiang, ZHANG Wen Chang
2013, 26(9): 735-741. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.004
Effects of Selected Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Multiple Biomarkers in Carassius auratus
XIA Jun, ZHAO Hai Zhou, LU Guang Hua
2013, 26(9): 742-749. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.005
Protein Expression in Silica Dust-induced Transdifferentiated Rats Lung Fibroblasts
HAO Chang Fu, LI Xiao Fang, YAO Wu
2013, 26(9): 750-758. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.006
Letters to Editor
Antimicrobial Profile of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Vegetables and Indigenous Fermented Foods of India against Clinical Pathogens Using Microdilution Method
2013, 26(9): 759-764. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.007

In dairy and food industries lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used in form of starter culture that plays vital role in fermentation;as flavouring and texturizing or as preservative agents.There is increasing evidence that lactobacilli which inhabit the gastrointestinal tract develop antimicrobial activities and participate in the host's defence system[1].During fermentation,most of the LAB produces a number of different compounds like organic acids,hydrogen peroxide,diacetyl,acetaldehyde,carbon dioxide,polysaccharides,and proteinaceous compounds called bacteriocins or bacteriocinogenic peptides[2-3].

Blood Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in overfed Aging Rats: Comparative Effects of Sunflower and Olive-Linseed Mixture Oil Rich Diets
AYAD Amina, MERZOUK Hafida, MERZOUK Sid Ahmed, NARCE Michel
2013, 26(9): 765-768. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.008

Obesity,one of the most common health problems,is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism abnormalities,increased cardiovascular risk and oxidative stress[1].Aging is also associated with an increase in oxidative stress[2].Considering that older adults are already at risk for oxidant stress,the additional metabolic perturbations of obesity aggravated the susceptibility to oxidant stress.Modulating age-related oxidative stress via dietary interventions could reduce free radical production and significantly improve health in aging.

Effect of Cadmium on Rat Leydig Cell Testosterone Production and DNA Integrity in vitro
LIU Qing, GU Jian Hong, YUAN Yan, LIU Xue Zhong, WANG Ya Jun, WANG Han Dong, LIU Zong Ping
2013, 26(9): 769-773. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.009

Cadmium (Cd) is an elemental heavy metal with widely recognized toxicity.Its long-term use in industrial processes and daily activities has caused alarming levels of Cd contamination in the natural environment.According to the estimates by the Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in the US,25 000 to 30 000 metric tons of Cd is annually released to the environment[1].Results of previous studies have demonstrated that several organs are targets of Cd,but the most important of these targeted organs may be the testes.Cadmium can cause the apoptosis of testis cells and modify the expression of carcinogenesis-related genes to cause cancer in the testes[2],interfere with the male reproductive endocrine functions[3],or even alter gene expression at non-toxic doses[4].To date,the mechanism underlying the reproductive toxicity caused by Cd in male animals remains unclear.Here,the effect of Cd on primary cultures of Leydig cells was investigated in vitro.

All-transRetinoic Acid Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in CD4+ T cells When GATA-3 is Deficient
ZHU Yan Feng, HU Jia Zhe, ZHAO Pin Nan, LIU Lin Xi, LI Yun
2013, 26(9): 774-777. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.010

The essential effect of vitamin A on immune function occurs through various mechanisms including direct effect on Th1-Th2 balance modulation.However,it is unclear whether or not vitamin A can regulate Th1-Th2 balance under a strong Th1-polarizing condition.Therefore,the purpose of our study was to examine the effect of vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)on Th1-Th2 differentiation in CD4+ T cells under GATA-3 deficiency,which can induce Th1-polarizing condition.In the present study,GATA-3 deficiency T cells were induced by siRNA and checked by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot.GATA-3 deficiency CD4+ T cells and normal CD4+ T were treated for 48 h with or without ATRA.The expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were detected by qPCR and ELISA.The results would contribute to clarify the knowledge of the role of vitamin A in regulating Th1-Th2 balance under some special conditions,and help to explain the mechanism of immune regulatory function of vitamin A.

Screening of Genes with Unique Mutations of Microcus
SHEN Xiao Na, XIA Lian Xu, HAI Rong, LIANG Ying, XU Dong Lei, CAI Hong, WANG Yu Meng
2013, 26(9): 778-781. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.011

Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plagues.Strains of Y.pestis are classified into four biovars:antiqua,mediaevalis,orientalis,and microtus[1].There are two microtus-related plague foci in China:the Microtus brandti plague focus in the Xilin Gol Grassland (focus L) and the Microtus fuscus plague focus in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (focus M).

Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Group A Streptococci Isolated from Children in Chaoyang District of Beijing, 2011: emm Types, Virulence Factor Genes and Erythromycin Resistant Genes
WANG Hai Bin, SONG Yan Yan, YOU Yuan Hai, WANG Heng Wei, HAN Qin Hua, ZHAO Jian Hong, ZHANG Xiao Xi
2013, 26(9): 782-784. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.012

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of diseases in the human population.GAS diseases are more common in children than in adults,with clinical manifestations ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo to invasive infections and post streptococcal sequelae,such as acute rheumatic fever and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis[1].GAS harbors a host of virulence factors that contribute to its complex pathogenicity and differences in the disease severity and frequency.M protein,one of the major virulence factors,is encoded by the emm gene induces a type of specific host immune response and confers antiphagocytic properties.

National Data of Class A,B and C Communicable Diseases in August 2013 in China
2013, 26(9) doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.09.013