2014 Vol. 27, No. 4

Select articles
Molecular Characterization of Full-length Genome of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V Isolated from Tibet, China
LI Ming Hua, FU Shi Hong, CHEN Wei Xin, WANG Huan Yu, CAO Yu Xi, LIANG Guo Dong
2014, 27(4): 231-239. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.046
Objective To determine the molecular characterization of full-length genome of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype V.
Methods The full-length nucleotide sequences of JEV strains isolated from different locations and sources were used in sequence and phylogenetic analysis.
Results The full-length genome of genotypes V JEV, XZ0934, and Muar strain were composed of 10 983 and 10 988 nucleotides respectively and shared a lower level of identity with JEV genotypes I-IV, ranging from 78.4% (G I, KV1899) to 79.7% (G III, JaGAr01), for the nucleotide sequences, and from 90.0%(G I, KV1899) to 91.8%(G III, JaGAr01) for the amino acid sequences. The open reading frame (ORF) of JEV genotype V spanned nucleotides 96 to 10 397 and encoded 3 433 amino acids. Interestingly, a comparison with JEV genotype I-IV revealed that 3 nucleotides (encoded with a serine residue) were inserted in the NS4A gene of JEV genotype V, and the insertion of nucleotides was also found in downstream of the ORF stop codon in 3’-untranslated region. Moreover, numerous amino acid mutations were observed in 3 functional domains of the E gene of JEV genotype V.
Conclusion The molecular characterization of JEV genotype V is significantly different from that of the known genotypes I-IV. The mutations located in the coding region and the non-coding region may be molecular markers of JEV genotype V and warrant further studies to determine their effects on biology and immunogenicity of genotype V strains.
A Novel Reassortant H2N3 Influenza Virus Lsolated from China
LI Xiao Dan, ZOU Shu Mei, ZHANG Ye, BAI Tian, GAO Rong Bao, ZHANG Xin, WU Jie, SHU Yue Long
2014, 27(4): 240-249. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.047
Objective To analyze the genetic composition of a novel H2N3 virus isolate identified from a duck cage swab in a live poultry market (LPM) in 2009 in Guangdong province of China.
Methods PCR-positive specimens were inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs and subtyped by conventional RT-PCR. All segments of the virus A/environment/Guangdong/2/2009 were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed and analyzed.
Results The genes of this virus belong to Eurasian-lineage avian viruses. The virus is a reassortant with the HA gene from an H2N2 virus and the NA gene from an H5N3 virus. The PB1, PB2, and NP genes were from an H4N6 virus, the PA was from an H3N8 virus, the M gene was from an H1N3 virus, and the NS gene was from an H10N6 virus.
Conclusion market. Its A novel avian-origin reassortant H2N3 influenza virus was detected in a live poultry potential impacts and evolution should be closely monitored.
Rapid and High-throughout Identification of Recombinant Bacteria with Mass Spectrometry Assay
2014, 27(4): 250-258.
Objective To construct a rapid and high-throughput assay for identifying recombinant bacteria based on mass spectrometry.
Methods Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) techniques were used to identify 12 recombinant proteins (10 of Yersinia pestis, 1 of Campylobacter jejuni and 1 of Helicobacter pylori). A classification model for the various phase of recombinant bacteria was established, optimized and validated, using MALDI-TOF MS-CIinProTools system. The differences in the peptide mass spectra were analyzed by using Biotyper and FIexAnalysis softwares.
Results Models of GA, SNN, and QC were established. After optimizing the parameters, the GA recognition model showed good classification capabilities: RC=100%, mean CVA=98.7% (the CVA was 96.4% in phase 1, 100% in phase 2, 98.4% in phase 3, and 100% in phase 4, respectively) and PPV=95}. This model can be used to classify the bacteria and their recombinant, which only requires 3.7x103 cells for analysis. The total time needed is only 10 min from protein extraction to reporting the result for one sample. Furthermore, this assay can automatically detect and test 96 samples concurrently. A total of 48 specific peaks (9, 16, 9, and 14 for the four stages, respectively) was found in the various phase of recombinant bacteria.
Conclusion MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a fast, accurate, and high-throughput method to identify recombinant bacteria, which provide a new ideas not only for recombinant bacteria but also for the identification of mutant strains and bioterrorism pathogens.
Indoor 222Rn Levels and Effectiv Dose Estimation of Academic Staff in izmir-Turkey
2014, 27(4): 259-267.
Objective To investigate the annual effective doses from indoor radon received by academic staff in the Faculty building.
Methods Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in the Arts and Sciences Faculty of Dokuz Eylul University for two surveys of about 1 month duration respectively using the SSNTD (Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors) method with LR115 detectors. Time integrated measurements comprised different locations inside the faculty building: classrooms, toilets, canteen and offices. Homes of academic staff were also tested for radon.
Results The aritthmetic mean radon concentration is 161 Bq m-3 with a range between 40 and 335 Bq m-3 in the Faculty. Six offices and three classrooms have a radon concentration above 200 Bq m-3. The results show that the radon concentration in classrooms is generally higher than in offices. Based on the measured indoor radon data, the annual effective doses received by staff in the Faculty were estimated to range from 0.79 to 4.27 mSv, according to UNSCEAR methodology. The annual effective doses received by staff ranged from 0.78 to 4.20 mSv in homes. On average, the Faculty contributed 56% to the annual effective dose.
Conclusion Reported values for radon concentrations and corresponding doses are within the ICRP recommended limits for workplaces.
Di-(n-butyl)-phthalate-induced Oxidative Stress and Depression-like Behavior in Mice with or without Ovalbumin Immunization
ZUO Hao Xiao, LI Jin Quan, HAN Bing, KE Chen Juan, LIU Xu Dong, ZHANG Yu Chao, LI Li, YANG Xu
2014, 27(4): 268-280. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.001
Objective To investigate the relationship between atopic allergy and depression and the role of DBP in the development of depression.
Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into eight groups:saline;ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized;saline+DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d); saline+DBP (45 mg/kg·d); DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; DBP (45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; saline+hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d); and hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d)-exposed OVA-immunized. Behavior (e.g. open-field, tail suspension, and forced swimming tests), viscera coefficients (brain and spleen), oxidative damage [e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH)], as well as levels of IgE and IL-4, were then analyzed.
Results In the saline and OVA groups, the degree of depression symptoms in mice increased with increasing DBP concentration. Additionally, the OVA-immunity groups were associated with more serious depressive behavior compared with the same exposure concentration in the saline group. Oxidative damage was associated with a dose-dependent increase in DBP in the different groups. IL-4 and IgE levels were associated with low-dose DBP stimulation, which changed to high-dose inhibition with increasing DBP exposure, possibly due to spleen injury seen at high DBP concentrations.
Conclusion Development of an atopic allergy has the potential to increase the risk of depression in mice, and it seems that DBP helps OVA to exert its effect in our present model. Moreover, the results of our study implicate a certain connection between brain oxidative stress and depression, which deserves a further exploration.
Toxic Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive System of Male Rats
SONG Yang, JIA Zhen Chao, CHEN Jin Yao, HU Jun Xiang, ZHANG Li Shi
2014, 27(4): 281-288. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.050
Objective This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of Atrazine (ATZ) on the reproductive system of male rats.
Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ATZ by gavage at dosages of 0, 38.5, 77, and 154 mg/kg bw/day for 30 d. The toxic effects of ATZ to rats were assessed through histopathologcal observation, spermatozoa quality evaluation, testicular marker enzyme indicators, antioxidant capacity and reproductive hormone levels.
Results Significant adverse effects on reproductive system were observed in rats exposed to ATZ at different dosages compared with 0 mg/kg group, including an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium in 154 mg/kg group;a decreased spermatozoa number and an increased spermatozoa abnormality rate in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups;decreased levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) with the increasing of ATZ concentration; a decreased level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a dose-dependent manner, and a decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 154 mg/kg group;and decreased serum levels of testosterone (T) and inhibin-B (INH-B) and an increased serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups, and an increased serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in 154 mg/kg group.
Conclusion These results suggested that relatively high doses of ATZ could exert reproductive toxicity of male rats.
A Novel High Nitrogen Nickel-free Coronary Stents System:Evaluation in a Porcine Model
ZHANG Bin, CHEN Ming, ZHENG Bo, WANG Xin Gang, WANG Xi Ting, FAN Yuan Yuan, HUO Yong
2014, 27(4): 289-294. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.051
Objective To study the safety of the novel high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel bare metal stents (BMS) in a recognized porcine coronary model and to select a better grid structure of it.
Methods Three types of stents were randomly implanted in different coronary arteries of the same pig: 316L stainless steel BMS (316L-BMS) (n=12), novel high nitrogen nickel-free stents Grid A (NF-A-BMS) (n=12) and novel high nitrogen nickel-free stents Grid B (NF-B-BMS) (n=12). In total, eighteen animals underwent successful random placement of 36 oversized stents in the coronary arteries. Coronary angiography was performed after 36 d of stents implantation. Nine animals were respectively sacrificed after 14 d and 36 d for histomorphologic analysis.
Results Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) showed similar luminal loss (LL) in the three groups:(0.21±0.17) mm for 316L-BMS, (0.16±0.12) mm for NF-A-BMS, (0.24±0.15) mm for NF-B-BMS (P>0.05). Histomorphomeric analysis after 15 d and 36 d revealed that there was also no significant difference among the three groups in neointimal area (NA) with similar injury scores respectively. High magnification histomorphologic examination showed similar inflammation scores in the three groups, but NF-A-BMS group had poorer endothelialization scores compared with NF-B-BMS group, 2.00±0.63 vs. 2.83±0.41 (P=0.015) at 15 d, which also could be proved by the scanning electron microscope. However, the difference could not been observed at 36 d.
Conclusion The novel NF-BMS showed similar safety as 316L-BMS during the short-term study. NF-B-BMS had better endothelialization than NF-A-BMS and this may owe to the specific strut units.
Anti-Nociceptive Effect in Mice of Thillai Flavonoid Rutin
Gurudeeban Selvaraj, Satyavani Kaliamurthi, Ramanathan Thirungnasambandam, Lalitha Vivekanandan, Balasubramanian Thangavel
2014, 27(4): 295-299. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.052
Protective Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Septic Rats and Its Mechanism
WU Li Li, JIA Bao Hui, SUN Jian, CHEN Jun Xi, LIU Zhong Ying, LIU Yuan
2014, 27(4): 300-303. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.053
The Nationwide Impact of Injury-related Deaths on Average Life Expectancy in China
WANG Yuan, JI Cui Rong, ZHOU Mai Geng, JI Yi Bing, LIU Yun Ning, DUAN Lei Lei
2014, 27(4): 304-310. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.054
Association between Macroscopic-factors and Identified HIV/AIDS Cases among Injecting Drug Users:An Analysis Using Geographically Weighted Regression Model
XING Jian Nan, GUO Wei, QIAN Sha Sha, DING Zheng Wei, CHEN Fang Fang, PENG Zhi Hang, QIN Qian Qian, WANG Lu
2014, 27(4): 311-318. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.055