2015 Vol. 28, No. 10

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Characteristics of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Women Aged 15-49 Years from 2005 to 2012 in China
ZHANG Xia Yan, HUANG Tao, FENG Yi Bing, LI Meng, CHEN Fang Fang, LI Yin Ge, JIN Shan Shan, BU Kai, WANG Lu
2015, 28(10): 701-708. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.100
Objective To describe the characteristics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in women aged 15-49 years in China.
Methods HIV/AIDS cases from 2005 to 2012 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified on the Chinese HIV/AIDS case reporting system. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed.
Results A total of 103,559 female HIV/AIDS cases were included in our study. Based on the descriptive analysis, between 2005 and 2012, the proportion of heterosexually acquired HIV infection among women (15-49 years) increased rapidly from 35.8% to 87.4%. Approximately 60% of these cases were infected through non-marital heterosexual contact. Among older women (40-49 years), a slightly increasing trend was identified. The spatial analysis detected ‘hot spots’ in the Xinjiang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, and Chongqing provinces. The epidemic trends in these areas were predominately driven by heterosexual transmission.
Conclusion Non-marital heterosexual contact is a very important factor in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in women aged 15-49 years, and the HIV infection rate in older women is increasing. Several epidemic hot spots were detected in northwestern and southwestern China. Efficient interventions are needed to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among women living in these areas.
Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China
ZHENG Yi Wu, LAI Xu Xin, ZHAO De Yu, ZHANG Chun Qing, CHEN Jian Jun, ZHANG Luo, WEI Qing Yu, CHEN Shi, LIU En Mei, NORBACK Dan, GJESING Birgitte, ZHONG Nan Shan, SPANGFORT DMichael
2015, 28(10): 709-717. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.101
Objective Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households.
Methods Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA.
Results HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from <0.006 to 9.2 μg/g of dust, depending on the city. The percentages of households having HDM allergen levels associated with the risk of developing allergy sensitization and asthma were 65% and 25%, respectively. Specific antigens of the storage mite and cockroach were only found in samples from the southern and tropical regions of China. Levels of mite allergens were generally higher in samples from bedding compared to samples from the living room, even for storage mites, whereas levels of cockroach antigens were higher in the living room samples.
Conclusion HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.
Antitumor Activities and Apoptosis-regulated Mechanisms of Fermented Wheat Germ Extract in the Transplantation Tumor Model of Human HT-29 Cells in Nude Mice
ZHANG Jia Yan, XIAO Xiang, DONG Ying, WU Jing, ZHOU Xing Hua
2015, 28(10): 718-727. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.102
Objective A subcutaneous transplantation tumor model of human HT-29 cells in nude mice was established to evaluate anticarcinogenic activities, and the apoptosis-regulated mechanism effect of aqueous extract of fermented wheat germ with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFWGE).
Methods The HT-29 cells were transplanted via subcutaneous injection of 1×107 cells into the right flank of each nude mouse. Then, nude mice were treated for 30 d with LFWGE (high-dose 2 g/kg/d;low-dose 1 g/kg/d) and for 7 d with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 25 mg/kg/d) by gavage and intraperitoneal injection, respectively. An inhibition of tumor growth was observed.
Results Tumor volume and weights decreased significantly in both groups of nude mice treated with LFWGE. In addition, the cell apoptosis rate of the LFWGE group (2 g/kg/d, 60.1%±4.4%; 1 g/kg/d, 58.6%±6.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (11.5%±1.6%) and 5-FU group (32.1%±3.5%) as measured by the TUNEL assay. Moreover, the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot method further confirmed these enhancing apoptosis and growth inhibition effects. The involvement of LFWGE in inducing apoptosis was confirmed by the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and CyclinD1.
Conclusion The results showed that LFWGE could induce subcutaneous transplantation tumor apoptosis in nude mice and could be as a natural nutrient supplements or chemopreventive agent in the treatment of human colon cancer.
Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats
GUAN Li, LI Zong Yang, ZHANG Yan Lin, CONG Cui Cui, ZHAO Jin Yuan
2015, 28(10): 728-737. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.103
Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain.
Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning.
Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning.
Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.
Application of UPLC-MS/MS Method for Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk
REN Xiang Nan, YIN Shi An, YANG Zhen Yu, YANG Xiao Guang, SHAO Bing, REN Yi Ping, ZHANG Jing
2015, 28(10): 738-750. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.104
Objective To determine ten B-vitamins in human milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
Methods The pretreated human milk samples were adequately separated and quantified within 11 min by UPLC-MS/MS with an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The mobile phase was a gradient of 2.5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Stable isotope internal standards were used in the analysis, to correct for the method variability, including matrix and ionization effects. The homogenized human milk samples were deproteinzed using methanol, unknown contaminants were extracted with diethyl ether and hydrophobic phase was discarded. The analytes were monitored via ESI+ionization and detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with three acquisition functions.
Results Calibration curves ranged from 0.5-160 ng/mL (thiamin, riboflavin, biotin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal), and 2.5-800 ng/mL (pantothenic acid, FAD and nicotinamide) (R2=0.990-0.999). The relative recovery ranged from 80.1% to 120.2%; accuracy was determined to be 98.3% to 108.0%. Intra-day and inter-day variation were 3.4%-19.9% and 5.9%-18.1%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for all vitamins was between 0.25 and 3 μg/L.
Conclusion This method was successfully applied for simultaneous analysis of ten B-vitamins in human milk.
Overview of Molecular Typing Tools for The Characterization of Salmonella enterica in Malaysia
Soo Tein Ngoi, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Lay Ching Chai, Kwai Lin Thong
2015, 28(10): 751-764. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.105
Drinking Behavior and Associated Factors among Middle School Students in Shanghai, China
WANG Zheng Yuan, SONG Jun, ZANG Jia Jie, HUANG Cui Hua, ZOU Shu Rong, MA Guan Sheng
2015, 28(10): 765-768. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.106
Maternal Genistein Intake Can Reduce Body Weight in Male Offspring
ZHANG Yun Bo, YAN Jing Dong, YANG Su Qing, GUO Ji Peng, ZHANG Xiao, SUN Xiao Xi, NA Xiao Lin, DAI Shao Chun
2015, 28(10): 769-772. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.107
Valproic Acid Enhances the Anti-tumor Effect of (-)-gossypol to Burkitt Lymphoma Namalwa Cells
GONG Yi, NI Zhen Hong, ZHANG Xi, CHEN Xing Hua, ZOU Zhong Min
2015, 28(10): 773-777. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.108