2015 Vol. 28, No. 5

Select articles
The Impacts of Mosquito Density and Meteorological Factors on Dengue Fever Epidemics in Guangzhou, China, 2006-2014:a Time-series Analysis
SHEN Ji Chuan, LUO Lei, LI Li, JING Qin Long, OU Chun Quan, YANG Zhi Cong, CHEN Xiao Guang
2015, 28(5): 321-329. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.046
Objective To explore the associations between the monthly number of dengue fever(DF) cases and possible risk factors in Guangzhou, a subtropical city of China.
Methods The monthly number of DF cases, Breteau Index (BI), and meteorological measures during 2006-2014 recorded in Guangzhou, China, were assessed. A negative binomial regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between BI, meteorological factors, and the monthly number of DF cases.
Results A total of 39,697 DF cases were detected in Guangzhou during the study period. DF incidence presented an obvious seasonal pattern, with most cases occurring from June to November. The current month’s BI, average temperature (Tave), previous month’s minimum temperature (Tmin), and Tave were positively associated with DF incidence. A threshold of 18.25 °C was found in the relationship between the current month’s Tmin and DF incidence.
Conclusion Mosquito density, Tave, and Tmin play a critical role in DF transmission in Guangzhou. These findings could be useful in the development of a DF early warning system and assist in effective control and prevention strategies in the DF epidemic.
Hypertension Screening and Follow-up Management by Primary Health Care System among Chinese Population Aged 35 Years and Above
FENG Ya Jing, WANG Hui Cheng, LI Yi Chong, ZHAO Wen Hua
2015, 28(5): 330-340. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.047
Objective To describe hypertension screening and follow-up management among Chinese population aged 35 years and above within the primary health care system.
Methods Data from 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System were used. We investigated previous hypertension diagnosis, screening, and follow-up assessments within the primary health care system. The prevalence of self-reported and criterion-based hypertension, screening rates, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with screening, and patterns of follow-up assessments were recorded. The SAS software system was used for statistical analyses.
Results About 17.1% reported a previous hypertension diagnosis. The rate difference between the two measures of prevalence was 27.2%. Among those without self-reported hypertension, 27.7%reported never visiting a clinic during the past 1 year and 60.4%of those attending a clinic reported ever being screened. Younger age group was associated with lower screening proportion;odds ratios of 35-, 45-, 55-, and≥65 years were 1.7 (95%CI:1.5-1.9), 1.5 (95%CI:1.3-1.7), 1.3 (95%CI:1.2-1.4), and 1.0, respectively. About 35.1% of the patients had undergone follow-up assessments four or more times during the past 1 year.
Conclusion Majority of the Chinese population aged 35 years and above, particularly the less educated, elderly population, and rural residents were unaware of that they were suffering from hypertension. Most patients did not receive enough management services by the primary health care system. Thus, strengthening both the screening and follow-up management is needed.
Toxicity of Graphene Quantum Dots in Zebrafish Embryo
WANG Zhen Guo, a ZHOU Rong, a JIANG Dan, SONG Jing E, XU Qian, SI Jing, CHEN Yun Ping, ZHOU Xin, GAN Lu, LI Jian Zhen, ZHANG Hong, LIU Bin
2015, 28(5): 341-351. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.048
Objective To evaluate the bio-safety of graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we studied its effects on the embryonic development of zebrafish.
Methods In vivo, biodistribution and the developmental toxicity of GQDs were investigated in embryonic zebrafish at exposure concentrations ranging from 12.5-200 μg/mL for 4-96 h post-fertilization (hpf). The mortality, hatch rate, malformation, heart rate, GQDs uptake, spontaneous movement, and larval behavior were examined.
Results The fluorescence of GQDs was mainly localized in the intestines and heart. As the exposure concentration increased, the hatch and heart rate decreased, accompanied by an increase in mortality. Exposure to a high level of GQDs (200 μg/mL) resulted in various embryonic malformations including pericardial edema, vitelline cyst, bent spine, and bent tail. The spontaneous movement significantly decreased after exposure to GQDs at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL. The larval behavior testing (visible light test) showed that the total swimming distance and speed decreased dose-dependently. Embryos exposed to 12.5 μg/mL showed hyperactivity while exposure to higher concentrations (25, 50, 100, and 200μg/mL) caused remarkable hypoactivity in the light-dark test.
Conclusion Low concentrations of GQDs were relatively non-toxic. However, GQDs disrupt the progression of embryonic development at concentrations exceeding 50μg/mL.
Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Admissions for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases in Beijing:a Time Series Study
ZHANG Ying, WANG Shi Gong, MA Yu Xia, SHANG Ke Zheng, CHENG Yi Fan, LI Xu, NING Gui Cai, ZHAO Wen Jing, LI Nai Rong
2015, 28(5): 352-363. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.049
Objective To investigate the association between ambient air pollution and hospital emergency admissions in Beijing.
Methods In this study, a semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to evaluate the specific influences of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) on hospital emergency admissions with different lag structures from 2009 to 2011, the sex and age specific influences of air pollution and the modifying effect of seasons on air pollution to analyze the possible interaction.
Results It was found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration of PM10 at lag 03 day, SO2 and NO2 at lag 0 day were associated with an increase of 0.88%, 0.76%, and 1.82% respectively in overall emergency admissions. A 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration of PM10, SO2 and NO2 at lag 5 day were associated with an increase of 1.39%, 1.56%, and 1.18% respectively in cardiovascular disease emergency admissions. For lag 02, a 10 μg/m3 increase in concentration of PM10, SO2 and NO2 were associated with 1.72%, 1.34%, and 2.57% increases respectively in respiratory disease emergency admissions.
Conclusion This study further confirmed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with increased risk of hospital emergency admissions in Beijing.
Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality in the Jinchang Cohort, China, 2001-2010
QU Hong Mei, BAI Ya Na, CHENG Ning, DAI Min, ZHENG Tong Zhang, WANG Dennis, LI Hai Yan, HU Xiao Bin, LI Juan Sheng, REN Xiao Wei, SHANG Hui
2015, 28(5): 364-369. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.050
Objective To describe the baseline data of cancers in the Jinchang Cohort, this paper examined trends in cancer mortality among adults investigated in Jinchang, Gansu province from 2001 to 2010.
Methods Mortality data were collected from company departments through administrative documents, death certificates, etc. Trend analyses of cancer mortality were performed on the basis of 925 cancer deaths between 2001 and 2010.
Results The crude mortality rate of cancer continuously increased from 161.86 per 100,000 in 2001 to
315.32 per 100,000 in 2010, with an average increase of 7.69%per year in the Jinchang Cohort (16.41%in females compared to 6.04% in males), but the age-standardized mortality rate increased only in females. Thirteen leading cancers accounted for 92.10%of all cancer deaths. The five leading causes of cancer mortality in males were lung, gastric, liver, esophageal, and colorectal cancer, whereas those in females were lung, liver, gastric, breast, and esophageal cancer.
Conclusion The overall cancer mortality rate increased from 2001 to 2010 in the Jinchang Cohort, with greater rate of increase in females than in males. Lung, breast, and gastric cancer, in that order, were the leading causes of increased cancer mortality in females.
Dietary Patterns Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults
HE Deng Hua, YANG Min, ZHANG Rong Hua, MA Xiao Guang, HUANG Li Chun, HUANG En Shan, GU Wei, ZHU Yi Bo, ZHAO Dong, ZHU Xu Hui, DING Gang Qiang, ZHOU Biao
2015, 28(5): 370-373. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.051
Real-time RT-PCR Assay for the detection of Tahyna Virus
LI Hao, CAO Yu Xi, HE Xiao Xia, FU Shi Hong, LYU Zhi, HE Ying, GAO Xiao Yan, LIANG Guo Dong, WANG Huan Yu
2015, 28(5): 374-377. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.052
Inhibiting Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via Immobilization of Heparin/Fibronectin Complexes on Titanium Surfaces
LI Gui Cai, XU Qi Fei, YANG Ping
2015, 28(5): 378-382. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.053
Benchmark Dose Estimation for Cadmium-Induced Renal Effects Based on a Large Sample Population from Five Chinese Provinces
KE Shen, KE Qin Mei, JIA Wen Jing, CHENG Xi Yu, LI Hao, ZHANG Jie Ying, LUO Hui Fang, HE Jin Sheng, CHEN Zhi Nan
2015, 28(5): 383-387. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.054
Frequency, Duration and Intensity of Dengue Fever Epidemic Risk in Townships in Pearl River Delta and Yunnan in China, 2013
CHEN Qian Qian, MENG Yu Jie, LI Yue, QI Xiao Peng
2015, 28(5): 388-395. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.055
Intervention Strategies for the National Project of Workplace Health Promotion in China
LI Shuang, LI Tao, LI Chao Lin, WANG Chao
2015, 28(5): 396-400. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.056