2015 Vol. 28, No. 8

Select articles
Irradiation Response of Adipose-derived Stem Cells under Three-dimensional Culture Condition
DU Ya Rong, PAN Dong, CHEN Ya Xiong, XUE Gang, REN Zhen Xin, LI Xiao Man, ZHANG Shi Chuan, HU Bu Rong
2015, 28(8): 549-557. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.079
Objective Adipose tissue distributes widely in human body. The irradiation response of the adipose cells in vivo remains to be investigated. In this study we investigated irradiation response of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) under three-dimensional culture condition.
Methods ASCs were isolated and cultured in low attachment dishes to form three-dimensional (3D) spheres in vitro. The neuronal differentiation potential and stem-liked characteristics was monitored by using immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry in monolayer and 3D culture. To investigate the irradiation sensitivity of 3D sphere culture, the fraction of colony survival and micronucleus were detected in monolayer and 3D culture. Soft agar assays were performed for measuring malignant transformation for the irradiated monolayer and 3D culture.
Results The 3D cultured ASCs had higher differentiation potential and an higher stem-like cell percentage. The 3D cultures were more radioresistant after either high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam or low LET X-ray irradiation compared with the monolayer cell. The ASCs’ potential of cellular transformation was lower after irradiation by soft agar assay.
Conclusion These findings suggest that adipose tissue cell are relatively genomic stable and resistant to genotoxic stress.
The Screening of Genes Sensitive to Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Exposure and Bioinformatic Analysis of Potential Correlations to Learning and Memory
ZHAO Ya Li, LI Ying Xian, MA Hong Bo, LI Dong, LI Hai Liang, JIANG Rui, KAN Guang Han, YANG Zhen Zhong, HUANG Zeng Xin
2015, 28(8): 558-570. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.080
Objective To gain a better understanding of gene expression changes in the brain following microwave exposure in mice. This study hopes to reveal mechanisms contributing to microwave-induced learning and memory dysfunction.
Methods Mice were exposed to whole body 2100 MHz microwaves with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.45 W/kg, 1.8 W/kg, and 3.6 W/kg for 1 hour daily for 8 weeks. Differentially expressing genes in the brains were screened using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, with genes showing more significant differences further confirmed by RT-PCR.
Results The gene chip results demonstrated that 41 genes (0.45 W/kg group), 29 genes (1.8 W/kg group), and 219 genes (3.6 W/kg group) were differentially expressed. GO analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in metabolic processes, cellular metabolic processes, regulation of biological processes, macromolecular metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, cellular protein metabolic processes, transport, developmental processes, cellular component organization, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes are mainly involved in pathways related to ribosome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, long-term potentiation, Huntington's disease, and Neurotrophin signaling. Construction of a protein interaction network identified several important regulatory genes including synbindin (sbdn), Crystallin (CryaB), PPP1CA, Ywhaq, Psap, Psmb1, Pcbp2, etc., which play important roles in the processes of learning and memory.
Conclusion Long-term, low-level microwave exposure may inhibit learning and memory by affecting protein and energy metabolic processes and signaling pathways relating to neurological functions or diseases.
Mutagenic and Estrogenic Effects of Organic Compounds in Water Treated by Different Processes:A Pilot Study
LU Yi, LYU Xue Min, XIAO San Hua, YANG Xiao Ming, WANG Ya Zhou, TANG Fei
2015, 28(8): 571-581. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.081
Objective In this study, a pilot-scale investigation was conducted to examine and compare the biotoxicity of the organic compounds in effluents from five treatment processes (P1-P5) where each process was combination of preoxidation (O3), coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation, granular activated carbon, biological activated carbon and chlorination (NaClO).
Methods Organic compounds were extracted by XAD-2 resins and eluted with acetone and dichlormethane (DCM). The eluents were evaporated and redissolved with DMSO or DCM. The mutagenicity and estrogenicity of the extracts were assayed with the Ames test and yeast estrogen screen (YES assay), respectively. The organic compounds were detected by GC-MS.
Results The results indicated that the mutation ratio (MR) of organic compounds in source water was higher than that for treated water. GC-MS showed that more than 48 organic compounds were identified in all samples and that treated water had significantly fewer types and concentrations of organic compounds than source water.
Conclusion To different extents, all water treatment processes could reduce both the mutagenicity and estrogenicity, relative to source water. P2, P3, and P5 reduced mutagenicity more effectively, while P1 reduced estrogenicity, most effectively. Water treatment processes in this pilot plant had weak abilities to remove Di-n-butyl phthalate or 1, 2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid.
Antioxidant Effect of Sepia Ink Extract on Extrahepatic Cholestasis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Rats
Hanan Saleh, Amel M Soliman, Ayman S Mohamed, Mohamed-Assem S Marie
2015, 28(8): 582-594. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.082
Objective The aim of our study was to assess the complications of hepatic fibrosis associated with bile duct ligation and the potential curative role of sepia ink extract in hepatic damage induced by bile duct ligation.
Methods Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated group, model rats that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL), and BDL rats treated orally with sepia ink extract (200 mg/kg body weight) for 7, 14, and 28 d after BDL.
Results There was a significant reduction in hepatic enzymes, ALP, GGT, bilirubin levels, and oxidative stress in the BDL group after treatment with sepia ink extract. Collagen deposition reduced after sepia ink extract treatment as compared to BDL groups, suggesting that the liver was repaired. Histopathological examination of liver treated with sepia ink extract showed moderate degeneration in the hepatic architecture and mild degeneration in hepatocytes as compared to BDL groups.
Conclusion Sepia ink extract provides a curative effect and an antioxidant capacity on BDL rats and could ameliorate the complications of liver cholestasis.
Evaluating the Environmental Health Effect of Bamboo-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds through Analysis the Metabolic Indices of the Disorder Animal Model
GUO Ming, HU Zheng Qing, STRONG P James, SMIT Anne-Marie, XU Jian Wei, FAN Jun, WANG Hai Long
2015, 28(8): 595-605. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.083
Objective To identify the bamboo VOCs (volatile organic compounds) effect on animal physiological indices, which associated with human health.
Methods GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model.
Results Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol,β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels.
Conclusion Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants.
Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China:an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool
JIANG Zhen, GUO Sufang, Robert W SCHERPBIER, WEN Chun Mei, XU Xiao Chao, GUO Yan
2015, 28(8): 606-610. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.084
The Impact of Directly Observed Therapy on Preventive Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Students in Dalian, China
CHEN Qi, WANG Xue Mei, QI Yi, LIU Xiao Fang, JIANG Li Ping, HOU Wen, ZHOU Ling, LU Xi Wei
2015, 28(8): 611-615. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.085
A Systematic Assessment of Blood Lead Level in Children and Associated Risk Factors in China
WANG Lu, LI Zhen, HUANG Shao Xin, DU Chuang, WANG Hong, HE Li Ping, BI Yong Yi, SHI Yong, WANG Chun Hong
2015, 28(8): 616-619. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.086
Genomic Diversity and Evolution of Bacillus subtilis
YU Gang, WANG Xun Cheng, TIAN Wang Hong, SHI Ji Chun, WANG Bin, YE Qiang, DONG Si Guo, ZENG Ming, WANG Jun Zhi
2015, 28(8): 620-625. doi: 10.3967/bes2015.087