2015 Vol. 28, No. 7
Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake.
Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively.
Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.
Methods In all, 3326 professional adults aged 35-64 years from Beijing and Zhejiang province were recruited with a cluster random sampling method. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was modified, and the recommended Asia-Pacific cut-offs of waist circumstance were introduced into the criteria for metabolic syndrome from the Adult Treatment Panel III. A binary logistic regression model was applied to examine the association of all physical activity domains with the risk of the syndrome.
Results Participants who engaged in domestic activity for 31176 MET-min/week had a 41.6% less chance of having metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR), 0.584;95%confidence interval (CI), 0.480-0.710] than those without this activity. In adjusted models, adults who actively commuted for 333 MET-min/week but<528 MET-min/week had a 25%less chance of having the syndrome (OR, 0.750;95%CI, 0.582-0.966) than those who did not. No interaction was detected between the two domains of activity and the syndrome.
Conclusion This study highlighted the independently negative association of traffic and house activity with the prevalence of the syndrome in this sample with a generally low level of moderate activity.
Methods The Handan Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study that surveyed 6830 Chinese people aged 30+years from 13 randomly selected villages in Yongnian County, city of Handan, Hebei Province, in July, 2006. All participants underwent a standardized interview and extensive examinations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on ocular trauma.
Results Of the 5837 participants who filled out the questionnaire, 124 subjects [2.1%;95%confidence interval (CI), 1.8%-2.5%] reported a history of ocular trauma in either eye, including 19 (0.3%) persons reporting trauma in both eyes. Men were more likely to have an eye injury than women [odds ratio (OR), 3.3;2.2-4.9]. In multiple logistic regression models, ocular trauma was significantly more frequent among normotensive participants when compared with hypertensive participants (hypertensive vs. normotensive:OR, 0.6;0.4-0.9) and among participants who had a history of falls (OR, 2.4;1.2-4.8). The proportion of unilateral visual impairment and unilateral blindness due to trauma were 10.5% (13 subjects) and 21.0%(26 subjects), respectively.
Conclusion Our study reports the prevalence of severe ocular trauma among adults in rural China, revealing a high proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to trauma. These findings suggest the need for educational strategies to increase eye health awareness in this rural population with focus on providing at least appropriate first aid care to reduce blindness due to trauma.
Methods The expression levels of MAGI3 and PTEN were assessed in glioma samples by Western blotting. MAGI3 was stably transfected into C6 glioma cells to obtain C6-MAGI3 cells. Then, the proliferation, the expression levels of MAGI3 and PTEN, and Akt phosphorylation were evaluated in C6 and C6-MAGI3 cells. Xenograft tumor models were established by subcutaneous injection of C6 and C6-MAGI3 cells into nude mice, and the growth rates of xenografts in the mice were compared. The potential role of MAGI3 expression in PI3K/Akt signaling activation was further investigated by examining the correlation between MAGI3 expression and the expression of PI3K/Akt signaling downstream target genes in a glioma dataset using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA).
Results Expression levels of MAGI3 and PTEN were significantly downregulated in gliomas. Overexpression of MAGI3 in the glioma C6 cell line upregulated PTEN protein expression, inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, and suppressed cell proliferation. MAGI3 overexpression also inhibited the growth of C6 glioma tumor xenografts in nude mice. Analysis based on the GEO database confirmed the negative correlation between activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and MAGI3 mRNA levels in human glioma samples.
Conclusion The loss of MAGI3 expression in glioma may enhance the proliferation of glioma cells via downregulation of PTEN expression, leading to the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. MAGI3 is a potential glioma suppressor.
Methods A total of 1842 T2DM cases (507 newly diagnosed cases and 1335 previously diagnosed cases) and 7777 controls were included in this case-control study. PCR-RFLP was conducted to detect the genotype of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to describe the strength of the association by logistic regression.
Results In the study subjects, neither rs12363572 nor rs4930588 was significantly associated with T2DM, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), the two SNPs were also not associated with T2DM. Among the 3 common haplotypes, only haplotype TT was associated with reduced risk of T2DM (OR 0.820, 95% CI 0.732-0.919). In addition, rs12363572 was associated with BMI (P<0.001) and rs4930588 was associated with triglyceride levels (P=0.043) in 507 newly diagnosed T2DM cases but not in healthy controls.
Conclusion No LRP5 variant was found to be associated with T2DM in Han Chinese, but haplotype TT was found to be associated with T2DM.
Methods RNA was extracted from environment samples (including fecal samples from wild bird or domestic ducks, and water samples) for detecting the presence of Influenza A Virus targeting Matrix gene, using realtime RT-PCR assay. The positive samples were performed virus isolation with embryonated eggs. The subtype of the isolates were identified by RT-PCR assay with the H1-H16 and N1-N9 primer set. The whole-genome sequencing of isolates were performed. Phylogenetic and molecular characterizations of the eight genes of the isolates were analyzed.
Results Our results suggested that all the eight gene segments of DT/PC0360 belonged to the Eurasian gene pool, and the HA gene were belonged to distinct sublineage with H7N9 AIV which caused outbreaks in Mainland China in 2013. The hemagglutinin cleavage site of HA of DT/PC0360 showed characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Conclusion Strengthening the surveillance of AIVs of wild waterfowl and poultry in this region is vital for our knowledge of the ecology and mechanism of transmission to prevent an influenza pandemic.