Objective To survey avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) in the environment and explore the reasons for the surge in human H7N9 cases.Methods A total of 1,045 samples were collected from routine surveillance on poultry-related environments and 307 samples from human H7N9 cases-exposed environments in Henan from 2016 to 2017. The nucleic acids of influenza A (Flu A), H5, H7, and H9 subtypes were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results A total of 27 H7N9 cases were confirmed in Henan from 2016 to 2017, 24 had a history of live poultry exposure, and 15 had H7N9 virus detected in the related live poultry markets (LPMs). About 96% (264/275) Flu A positive-environmental samples were from LPMs. H9 was the main AIV subtype (10.05%) from routine surveillance sites with only 1 H7-positive sample, whereas 21.17% samples were H7-positive in H7N9 cases-exposed environments. Samples from H7N9 cases-exposed LPMs (47.56%) had much higher AIVs positive rates than those from routine surveillance sites (12.34%). The H7+H9 combination of mixed infection was 78.18% (43/55) of H7-positive samples and 41.34% (43/104) of H9-positive samples.Conclusion The contamination status of AIVs in poultry-related environments is closely associated with the incidence of human infection caused by AIVs. Therefore, systematic surveillance of AIVs in LPMs in China is essential for the detection of novel reassortant viruses and their potential for interspecies transmission.
Objective To identify measles vaccine failures in Tianjin, China using a measles virus IgG avidity assay.Methods The China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) was used to collect information about measles cases and blood specimens in Tianjin from 2013 to 2015. Measles-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Avidity testing for measles IgG was performed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA).Results A total of 284 confirmed measles cases were identified. Of this total, 262 (92.25%) were in patients aged ≥ 20 years. High avidity was exhibited in 172 (60.56%) cases, while 80 (28.17%) cases demonstrated low avidity. High avidity was detected in only 21.43% of cases in patients aged < 1 year. The proportion of high avidity increased with age, and was significantly higher in patients aged 30–39 years at 70.07% (χ2 = 17.27, P = 0.002). Of the 52 measles cases in patients with a history of vaccinations, 41 (78.85%) cases showed high avidity, indicating secondary vaccine failures (SVF). In these vaccinations, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in clinical severity between high avidity and low avidity cases. However, regardless of vaccination status, clinical severity was significantly lower in high avidity cases (P < 0.001) than in low avidity cases. The percentages of positive measles IgM results in high avidity and low avidity cases were 66.28% and 91.25%, respectively. Geometric Mean Concentration (GMC) was significantly lower in high avidity cases at 33.73 U/mL, compared to 166.07 U/mL in low avidity cases.Conclusions Low clinical severity and inconclusive IgM antibody results are more likely in high avidity measles cases. Measles cases were more common in adults. Therefore, a further dose of vaccines should be recommended for 30–39 years in Tianjin.
Objective In this study we aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the wristband activity monitor against the accelerometer for children.Methods A total of 99 children (mean age = 13.0 ± 2.5 y) wore the two monitors in a free-living context for 7 days. Reliability was measured by intraclass correlation to evaluate consistency over time. Repeated-measures analyses of variance was used to detect differences across days. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rho), median of absolute percentage error, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to assess the validity of the wristband against the ActiGraph accelerometer. The optimal number of repeated measures for the wristband was calculated by using the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula.Results The wristband had high reliability for all variables, although physical activity data were different across 7 days. A strong correlation for steps (rho: 0.72, P < 0.001), and moderate correlations for time spent on total physical activity (rho: 0.63, P < 0.001) and physical activity energy expenditure (rho: 0.57, P < 0.001) were observed between the wristband and the accelerometer. For different intensities of physical activity, weak to moderate correlations were found (rho: 0.38 to 0.55, P < 0.001). Conclusion The wristband activity monitor seems to be reliable and valid for measurement of overall children’s physical activity, providing a feasible objective method of physical activity surveillance in children.
Objective To identify the important risk factors for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and develop effective strategies to address the problem of T2DM. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genetic polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, and to provide clues for the etiology of T2DM.Methods Based on the criteria of inclusion and exclusion, we extracted, pooled, analyzed and assessed the case-control studies of ApoE polymorphism and T2DM published in PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, WanFang, VIP, and CNKI databases by R soft-ware (version 3.4.3). We used Random-effect models when heterogeneity was present in between-study, and fixed-effect models otherwise.Results We had 59 studies covering 6,872 cases with T2DM and 8,250 controls, and compared the alleles and genotypes of ApoE between cases and controls. When we conducted a comparison between ApoE ε4 and ε3 alleles, we produced a pooled OR of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.09-1.28; P < 0.001). ApoEε2/ε2 genotype displayed a possible association with T2DM (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.93; P = 0.007), ε3/ε4 genotype showed a 1.11-fold risk (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22; P = 0.039) and ε4/ε4 genotype had a 1.71-fold risk of developing T2DM (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.33-2.19; P < 0.001) when they were compared with ε3/ε3 genotype.Conclusions There is an association between ApoE polymorphism and T2DM: allele ε4 and genotypes (ε2/ε2, ε3/ε4, and ε4/ε4) are associated with the increased risk for the development of T2DM, and they may be risk factors for T2DM.
Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in fruit samples collected from Markazi Province, Iran. A probabilistic health risk assessment due to ingestion of PTEs through the consumption of these fruits was also conducted.Methods The concentration of PTEs in 90 samples of five types of fruits (n = 3) collected from six geographic regions in Markazi Province was measured. The potential health risk was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model.Results A significant difference was observed in the concentration of PTEs between fruits as well as soil and water samples collected from different regions in Markazi Province. The order of PTE concentration in the soil and water samples was as follows: Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Furthermore, the highest level of transfer factor for Cd and Hg correlated with the grape. The estimated daily intake for adults and children was lower than the recommended tolerable daily intake.Conclusion The population in Markazi Province, Iran, is not at considerable noncarcinogenic or carcinogenic risk due to the ingestion of PTEs through the consumption of the examined fruits.