2021 Vol. 34, No. 5

2021, 34(5)
2021, 34(5): 1-2.
Original Article
Malnutrition in Relation with Dietary, Geographical, and Socioeconomic Factors among Older Chinese
ZHANG Jian, SONG Peng Kun, ZHAO Li Yun, SUN Ye, YU Kai, YIN Jing, PANG Shao Jie, LIU Zhen, MAN Qing Qing, HE Li, LI Cheng, ARIGONI Fabrizio, BOSCO Nabil, DING Gang Qiang, ZHAO Wen Hua
2021, 34(5): 337-347. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.045
  Objective  Nutrition is closely related to the health of the elderly population. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrition status of elderly Chinese and its related dietary, geographical, and socioeconomic factors.  Methods  A total of 13,987 ≥ 60-year-old persons from the 2010–2013 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey were included to evaluate various aspects of malnutrition, including underweight, overweight or obesity, and micronutrient inadequacy.  Results  Overall, the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight was 12.4%, 34.8%, and 5.7%, respectively, with disparities both geographically and socioeconomically. The prevalence of underweight was higher among the older old (≥ 75 years), rural residents and those with low income, with low education status, and residing in undeveloped West areas. More than 75% of the elderly do not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamins A, B1, B2, and E, folate, calcium, selenium, potassium, biotin, and choline, with the prevalence of inadequate intake increasing with age for most nutrients. At the population level, the mean intakes of numerous food groups did not meet the recommendations by the Chinese Dietary Guideline.  Conclusions  Obesity epidemic, inadequacy of micronutrient intake, and high prevalence of underweight and anemia in susceptible older people are the major nutrition challenges for the rapidly aging population in China.
Increases in Height among Chinese Children and Adolescents by Gender: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis
HU Yue Hua, WANG Xin Yu, YAO Hong Yan, ZHANG Jian, YIN Da Peng, FENG Guo Shuang
2021, 34(5): 348-355. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.046
  Objective  To examine increases in average height among Chinese children and adolescents.  Methods  The data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted during the period 1989–2015. A stratified multistage cluster sampling method was utilized to select participants aged 2–22 years in each province. Linear regression was used to examine the effects of age, birth cohort, and survey period on height.  Results  A total of 15,227 males and 13,737 females were included in the final analysis. Age (A) showed a continuous effect on height. The average heights of the investigated groups increased continuously during the investigation period. By 2015, the average height of the overall group increased by 7.87 cm compared to the average height during the 1989 survey. Moreover, birth year (cohort, C) also had a stable effect on height. Using the height of individuals born in or before 1975 as a reference, the average height of each birth cohort increased in comparison to the previous birth cohort.  Conclusions  The height of Chinese children and adolescents was affected by age, period, and cohort effects, and this effect is governed by certain rules. The age-period-cohort model can be used to analyze the trends of children’s and adolescent’s heights. The findings provide a scientific basis for the formulation of children’s and adolescents’ growth and development policies in China.
Effect of N,N-Dimethylglycine on Homocysteine Metabolism in Rats Fed Folate-Sufficient and Folate-Deficient Diets
LIU Yi Qun, HUANG Ling He, LIU Pei Pei, XING Qing Bin, HAN Feng, WANG Qin, CHEN Shu Rong, SUGIYAMA Kimio, XIANG Xue Song, HUANG Zhen Wu
2021, 34(5): 356-363. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.047
  Objective  This study aimed to investigate the effects of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) on the concentration and metabolism of plasma homocysteine (pHcy) in folate-sufficient and folate-deficient rats.  Methods  In this study, 0.1% DMG was supplemented in 20% casein diets that were either folate-sufficient (20C) or folate-deficient (20CFD). Blood and liver of rats were subjected to assays of Hcy and its metabolites. Hcy and its related metabolite concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatographic system.  Results  Folate deprivation significantly increased pHcy concentration in rats fed 20C diet (from 14.19 ± 0.39 μmol/L to 28.49 ± 0.50 μmol/L; P < 0.05). When supplemented with DMG, pHcy concentration was significantly decreased (12.23 ± 0.18 μmol/L) in rats fed 20C diet but significantly increased (31.56 ± 0.59 μmol/L) in rats fed 20CFD. The hepatic methionine synthase activity in the 20CFD group was significantly lower than that in the 20C group; enzyme activity was unaffected by DMG supplementation regardless of folate sufficiency. The activity of hepatic cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in the 20CFD group was decreased but not in the 20C group; DMG supplementation enhanced hepatic CBS activity in both groups, in which the effect was significant in the 20C group but not in the other group.  Conclusion  DMG supplementation exhibited hypohomocysteinemic effects under folate-sufficient conditions. By contrast, the combination of folate deficiency and DMG supplementation has deleterious effect on pHcy concentration.
Polymorphism of P66 in Borrelia Burgdorferi Strains in China
HAO Qin, LIU Hui Xin, HOU Xue Xia, ZHANG Lin, YANG Xiao Na, WAN Kang Lin
2021, 34(5): 364-371. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.048
  Objective  To study the polymorphism in P66 and its human B-cell epitopes of Borrelia burgdorferi strains in China.  Methods  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to obtain the P66 sequences of 59 Chinese B. burgdorferi. Then the sequences were analyzed by MEGA 5.10 software and compared with the human B-cell epitope sequences from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) based on the reference strain of each genotype.  Results  Results showed that genetic and amino acid diversity presented in the 66 kD protein of all 59 Chinese strains, especially in Borrelia garinii (B.g) and Borrelia afzelii (B.a) strains. B.g strains were divided into three subclusters and two scattered strains JC1-7 and JC2-2 according to the amino acid sequences of P66. The P66 sequences of 15 Xinjiang strains represented by XI91-12 in the B.g subcluster 1, changed from CAA to TAA codon at 508aa position, resulting in early termination. Bases A and C were inserted at sequence position 1 523 bp of strains FP1, LB20, LB21, and SZ21 in the B.a genotype, which resulted to early termination at position 511 aa. G base was inserted at 438 bp of LIP94-11 strain, which led to early termination at position 172 aa.  Conclusion  In P66 of 59 Chinese strains, polymorphisms were widely distributed. More importantly, the P66 amino acid sequences of B.g strains had a certain regional character. One of the characteristics of Xinjiang B.g isolates might be the variation at the 508aa location in 15 Xinjiang B.g strains, which may be related to the strains’ pathogenicity in this area.
Developing a Subjective Evaluation Scale for Assessing the Built Environments of China’s Hygienic City Initiative
ZHENG Wen Jing, YAO Hong Yan, LIU Jian Jun, YU Shi Cheng
2021, 34(5): 372-378. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.049
  Objective  To develop a preliminary subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China’s Hygienic City Initiative and to evaluate its reliability and validity.  Methods  The initial items of the scale were determined based on a review of policy documents and consultations with experts. The final items of the scale were confirmed through individual interviews with residents combined with the discretetrend method, critical ratio method, correlation coefficient method, and factor analysis method. Then, the dimensions of the scale were determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Cronbach’s α coefficient, split-half reliability coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess the reliability and validity of the scale.  Results  A scale containing five dimensions with 22 items was established, including urban lifestyle, governance, basic functions, environmental sanitation, and amenities. The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the scale was 0.876, and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.796. The CFA results indicate that each inspection level was within the standard limit.  Conclusion  The preliminarily subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China’s Hygienic City Initiative demonstrates a high level of reliability and validity. Additional empirical studies should be carried out to further verify the value of the scale in terms of practical application.
Climate Change and Temperature-related Mortality: Implications for Health-related Climate Policy
TONG Shi Lu, Jorn Olsen, Patrick L. Kinney
2021, 34(5): 379-386. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.050
Letter to the Editor
Does Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Off Days have an Effect on Long-term Prognosis in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease in China?
LIU Ru, GAO Li Jian, XU Ou, ZHANG Ce, JIA Si Da, QIAO Shu Bin, YANG Yue Jin, GAO Run Lin, XU Bo, YUAN Jin Qing
2021, 34(5): 387-394. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.051
Burden of Outpatient Visits Attributable to Ambient Temperature in Qingdao, China
WANG Zi Xian, CHENG Yi Bin, WANG Yu, WANG Yan, ZHANG Xin Hang, SONG He Jia, LI Yong Hong, YAO Xiao Yuan
2021, 34(5): 395-399. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.052
Climate change has been referred to as one of the greatest threats to human health, with reports citing likely increases in extreme meteorological events. In this study, we estimated the relationships between temperature and outpatients at a major hospital in Qingdao, China, during 2015–2017, and assessed the morbidity burden. The results showed that both low and high temperatures were associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits. High temperatures were responsible for more morbidity than low temperatures, with an attributed fraction (AF) of 16.86%. Most temperature-related burdens were attributed to moderate cold and hot temperatures, with AFs of 5.99% and 14.44%, respectively, with the young (0–17) and male showing greater susceptibility. The results suggest that governments should implement intervention measures to reduce the adverse effects of non-optimal temperatures on public health—especially in vulnerable groups.
Drug Resistance to HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors among Treatment-naive Patients in Jiangsu, China
YIN Yue Qi, LU Jing, ZHOU Ying, SHI Ling En, YUAN De Fu, CHEN Jian Shuang, XUAN Yan, HU Hai Yang, ZHANG Zhi, XU Xiao Qin, FU Geng Feng, WANG Bei
2021, 34(5): 400-403. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.053
Recent Trends in Physical Activity among Chinese Children Based on Their Demographic and Social Characteristics
YANG Xi, LEUNG Alice Waiyi, ZHAI Yi, ZHAO Wen Hua
2021, 34(5): 404-409. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.054
Aimed to explore the trends in physical activity among Chinese children, data of 4,341 children aged 6−17 years who participated in at least one round of “China Health and Nutrition Survey” from 2004 to 2015 were analyzed. Repeated measures mixed models were applied to test the trends in physical activity, which were further analyzed after applying stratification on gender, age, urbanization level, residential area and region. The volume of total physical activity in Chinese children aged 6–17 years showed a downward trend from 2004 to 2015, especially among children residing in medium and high urbanization communities, the south and urban areas of China, so that more efforts need to be put to promote their physical activity.
Tick-borne Pathogens in Shanxi Province, China
YANG Xiao Na, YANG Hui Jun, ZHANG Lin, HOU Xue Xia, MIAO Guang Qing, CAO Hong Bing, HAO Rui E, HAO Qin
2021, 34(5): 410-415. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.055
Association between Parity, Carotid Plaques, and Intima Media Thickness in Northern Chinese Women
YAO Yan, LIU Hua Min, FENG Xia, LI Dong, ZHOU Yong, ZHANG Zhi Hui
2021, 34(5): 416-420. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.056
Dual Fluorescent Protein (yEGFP/DsRed-Express-2) Bioassay System for Rapid Screening for Chemical Mutagens Based on RNR3 Regulation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
LIU Xing, CHEN Geng, LU Gang Yu, YAO Jia, ZHU Fang Yu, XU Jun, LI Xiang Ming
2021, 34(5): 421-424. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.057