Objective To determine the prevalence and determinants of folic acid (FA) supplementation in Chinese couples planning for pregnancy and in women during early pregnancy.Methods This was a cross-sectional study based on the Shanghai PreConception Cohort (SPCC) study. Data on FA supplementation and socio-demographic features were collected using questionnaires. Couples visiting clinics for pre-pregnancy examination and pregnant women at < 14 gestational weeks were recruited in Shanghai, China, between March 2016 and September 2018.Results Among the pregnancy planners, 42.4% (4,710/11,099) women and 17.1% (1,377/8,045) men used FA supplements, while 93.4% (14,585/15,615) of the pregnant women used FA supplements. FA supplement use was higher in female pregnancy planners who were older (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08–1.18), had higher education (RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.53–1.92), and were residing in urban districts (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01–1.11) of FA supplementation; female pregnancy planners with alcohol consumption (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90–0.99) had lower odds of FA supplementation. In early pregnancy, women with higher educational level (RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03–1.06), who underwent pre-pregnancy examination (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03) had higher odds of using an FA supplement; older aged (RR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99), and multigravida (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96–0.98) had lower odds of FA supplementation.Conclusion Although the majority of pregnant women took FA supplements, more than half of the women planning for pregnancy did not. Urgent strategies are needed to improve pre-conception FA supplementation.
Objective This study aimed to measure the basal energy expenditure (BEE) of Chinese healthy adults and establish an accurate predictive equation for this population.Methods In total, 470 Chinese healthy adults had their BEE measured using the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to develop new optimal equations for predicting BEE. The bias, accuracy rate, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the predictive equations.Results There was a significant difference in BEE between males and females, with 5,954 kJ/d and 5,089 kJ/d, respectively. People living in rural areas expended significantly higher BEE (5,885 kJ/d) than those in urban areas (5,279 kJ/d). Previous equations developed by Henry, Schofield, Harris-Benedict (H-B), and Liu overestimated the BEE of Chinese healthy adults. The new equations derived from the present study displayed the smallest average bias and RMSE from the measured basal energy expenditure (mBEE). The CCC of the new equations was higher than other predictive equations, but it was lower than 0.8. There was no significant difference in the accuracy rate among all predictive equations.Conclusions Sex and regional differences in BEE were observed in Chinese healthy adults. Neither the widely used previous predictive equations nor the one derived in the present study were accurate enough for estimating the BEE of Chinese healthy adults. Further study is required to develop more accurate equations for predicting the BEE of Chinese healthy adults aged between 20–45 years.
Objective To investigate the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and peripheral blood CD14+CD16+ monocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis in CHD by analyzing the correlation between infection, inflammation, and CHD, to provide a basis for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of the disease.Methods In total, 192 patients with CHD were divided into three groups: latent CHD, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction. HCMV-IgM and -IgG antibodies were assessed using ELISA; CD14+CD16+ monocytes were counted using a five-type automated hematology analyzer; mononuclear cells were assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, lipoprotein, hs-CRp and Hcy.Results The positive rates of HCMV-IgM and -IgG were significantly higher in the CHD groups than in the control group. HCMV infection affects lipid metabolism to promote immune and inflammatory responses.Conclusion HCMV infection has a specific correlation with the occurrence and development of CHD. The expression of CD14+CD16+ mononuclear cells in the CHD group was increased accordingly and correlated with acute HCMV infection. Thus, HCMV antibody as well as peripheral blood CD14+CD16+ mononuclear cells can be used to monitor the occurrence and development of CHD.
Objective To screen the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) treated with atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5).Methods HBE cells were treated with PM2.5 samples from Shenzhen and Taiyuan for 24 h. To detect overall protein expression, the Q Exactive mass spectrometer was used. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and Perseus software were used to screen DEPs.Results Overall, 67 DEPs were screened in the Shenzhen sample-treated group, of which 46 were upregulated and 21 were downregulated. In total, 252 DEPs were screened in the Taiyuan sample-treated group, of which 134 were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. KEGG analysis demonstrated that DEPs were mainly enriched in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and HIF-1 signal pathways in Shenzhen PM2.5 samples-treated group. The GO analysis demonstrated that Shenzhen sample-induced DEPs were mainly involved in the biological process for absorption of various metal ions and cell components. The Taiyuan PM2.5-induced DEPs were mainly involved in biological processes of protein aggregation regulation and molecular function of oxidase activity. Additionally, three important DEPs, including ANXA2, DIABLO, and AIMP1, were screened.Conclusion Our findings provide a valuable basis for further evaluation of PM2.5-associated carcinogenesis.
Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of rats and the possible protective effect of luteolin (LUT) against CSC tissue damage.Methods Quantitative data were obtained via stereological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histopathological techniques. We investigated morphometric value, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and the expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein molecules, as well as histological changes.Results The total number of motor neurons in the EMF group significantly decreased in comparison with that in the control group (P < 0.05). In the EMF + LUT group, we found a significant increase in the total number of motor neurons compared with that in the EMF group (P < 0.05). SOD enzyme activity in the EMF group significantly increased in comparison with that in the control group (P < 0.05). By contrast, the EMF+LUT group exhibited a decrease in SOD level compared with the EMF group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Our results suggested that exposure to EMF could be deleterious to CSC tissues. Furthermore, the protective efficacy of LUT against SC damage might have resulted from the alleviation of oxidative stress caused by EMF.
Objective To detect the effects of shortwave radiation on dose-dependent cardiac structure and function in rats after radiation and to elucidate the mechanism of shortwave radiation induced cardiac injury to identify sensitive indicators and prophylactic treatment.Methods One hundred Wistar rats were either exposed to 27 MHz continuous shortwave at a power density of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm2 for 6 min or undergone sham exposure for the control (the rats had to be placed in the exposure system with the same schedules as the exposed animals, but with an inactive antenna). The Ca2+, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in the peripheral serum of the rats were detected by an automatic blood biochemical analyser. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of standard lead II was recorded by a multi-channel physiological recording and analysis system. The cardiac structure of rats was observed by light and electron microscopy.Results The results showed that the 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm2 shortwave radiation caused a significant increased in the levels of Ca2+, AST, CK, and LDH in the peripheral serum of rats. The cardiac structure was damaged by radiation and showed a disordered arrangement of myocardial fibres, the cavitation and swelling of myocardial mitochondria. These injuries were most significant 7 d after radiation and were not restored until 28 d after radiation.Conclusion Shortwave radiation of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm2 can damage rat cardiac function, including damage to the tissue structure and ultrastructure, especially at the level of the myocardial fibres and mitochondria. Shortwave radiation at 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm2 induced damage to rat heart function and structure with a dose-effect relationship, i.e., the greater the radiation dose was, the more significant the damage was.
This study aimed to understand the differences in clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features between the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and influenza A in children. Data of 23 hospitalized children with COVID-19 (9 boys, 5.7 ± 3.8 years old) were compared with age- and sex-matched 69 hospitalized and 69 outpatient children with influenza A from a hospital in China. The participants’ epidemiological history, family cluster, clinical manifestations, and blood test results were assessed. Compared with either inpatients or outpatients with influenza A, children with COVID-19 showed significantly more frequent family infections and higher ratio of low fever (< 37.3 °C), but shorter cough and fever duration, lower body temperature, and lower rates of cough, fever, high fever (> 39 °C), nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, vomiting, myalgia or arthralgia, and febrile seizures. They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time. The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A. Pediatric COVID-19 is associated with more frequent family infection, milder symptoms, and milder immune responses relative to pediatric influenza A.
Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay is a newly established PrPSc-detecting method. The development of RT-QuIC improves the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD), showing good sensitivity and specificity in many countries when the method was used in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. However, in China, the sensitivity and specificity of RT-QuIC has yet to be determined due to the lack of definitive diagnosis samples. Recently, 30 definitive sCJD and 30 non-CJD diagnoses were evaluated by RT-QuIC assay. In the 30 sCJD CSF samples, 29 showed positive results. By contrast, all the non-CJD samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of our RT-QuIC assay were 96.67% and 100%, respectively, and are comparable to other published data. Results can provide a fundamental basis for the usage of RT-QuIC assay in CJD surveillance in China.
An online survey conducted March 18–19, 2020 on the official China CDC WeChat account platform was used to evaluate the effect of public education about masks usage during the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Chinese nationals older than 18 were eligible for the survey. The survey collected 5,761 questionnaires from the 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions of mainland China. 99.7% and 97.2% of the respondents answered correctly that respiratory droplets and direct contact were the main transmission routes. 73.3% of the respondents considered COVID-19 to be ‘serious’ or ‘very serious’. When going to the hospital, 96.9% (2,885/2,976 had gone to a hospital) used a mask during the COVID-19 epidemic, while 41.1% (2,367/5,761) did not use a mask before the epidemic. Among the respondents that used public transportation and went shopping, 99.6% and 99.4%, respectively, wore masks. Among respondents who returned to work, 75.5% wore a mask at the workplace, while 86.3% of those who have not returned to work will choose to use masks when they return to the workplace. The Chinese public is highly likely to use a mask during COVID-19 epidemic, and the mask usage changed greatly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, public education has played an important role during the COVID-19 epidemic .