2013 Vol. 26, No. 11
Methods Seventy-four Streptococcal pyogenes involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever were isolated from pediatric patients in the areas with high incidence in China from May to August of 2011. Emm genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were analyzed for these isolates.
Results A total of 4 different emm types were identified. Emm12 was the most prevalent type which contained four predominating PFGE patterns corresponding to four different virulence and superantigen profiles. Emm12 (79.7%) and emml (14.90 accounted for approximately 94} of all the isolates. The speA gene was all negative in emm12 isolates and positive in emml isolates. All strains were resistant to erythromycin, and 89.4% of them were resistant to erythromycin, tracycline, and clindamycin simultaneously.
Conclusion Several highly diversified clones with a high macrolide resistance rate comprise a predominant proportion of circulating strains, though no new emm type was found in this outbreak. The data provide a baseline for further surveillance of scarlet fever, which may contribute to the explanation of the outbreak and development of a GAS vaccine in China.
Methods The data were collected from 5 473 patients with clinical suspected allergic diseases seeking medical care in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Among these patients, 2 530 (46.2%) were males aged 0-86 years, the youngest was only 1 month old and 2 579 (47.1%) were young children and teenagers. The serum specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 14 kinds of common allergens and serum total IgE were detected by using AllergyScreen test (Mediwiss Analytic GmbH, Moers, Germany).
Results In 5 473 subjects the positive rate of sIgE was 33.1%(n=1 813). Cow milk (6.9%) and wheat (3.1%) were the most common food allergens, followed by house dust mite mix (12.5%) and mould mix (9.4%) and the age and gender specific differences in the positive rate were significant. For the children aged<7 years the positive rates to cow milk, beef-mutton, and egg white/egg yolk were high, but the positive rates to house dust mite mix, ragweed estragon, and mould mix were low (P<0.05). For the adults the positive rates to aeroallergens were high while the rates to food allergens were low.
Conclusion The results from this study showed that the food allergens in Harbin had geographic characteristics, which support the viewpoint that the environment factors play an important role in the incidence of allergic diseases. Also, the detection of sIgE and total IgE are essential to identify relevant allergens for the purpose of early diagnosis, management and prevention of allergic disease.
Methods Five of 27 clinical Mycobacterium isolates (Cls) were previously identified as M. chelonae/abscessus complex by sequencing the hsp65, rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), recA and sodA house-keeping genes commonly used to describe the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium. Clinical Mycobacterium isolates were classified according to the gene sequence using a clustering analysis program. Sequence similarity within clusters and diversity between clusters were analyzed.
Results The 5 isolates were identified with distinct sequences exhibiting 99.8% homology in the hsp65 gene. However, a complete lack of homology was observed among the sequences of the rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), sodA, and recA genes as compared with the M. abscessus. Furthermore, no match for rpoB, sodA, and recA genes was identified among the published sequences.
Conclusion The novel species, Mycobacterium fukienense, is identified from tuberculosis patients in Fujian Province, China, which does not belong to any existing subspecies of M. chelonea/abscessus complex.
Methods The anti-proliferation effect of resveratrol-induced, apoptosis and autophagy on T-ALL cells were detected by using MTT test, immunofluorescence, electronic microscope, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed for detecting changes of apoptosis-associated proteins, cell cycle regulatory proteins and state of activation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and p38-MAPK.
Results Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis and autophagy in T-ALL cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via up regulating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and down regulating cyclin A and cyclin D1. Western blotting revealed that resveratrol significantly decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax, Bim, and Bad), and induced cleaved-caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. Significant increase in ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 was also detected. Furthermore, resveratrol induced significant dephosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, but enhanced specific phosphorylation of p38-MAPK which could be blocked by SB203580. When autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA, apoptosis in T-ALL cells induced by resveratrol was enhanced.
Conclusion Our findings have suggested that resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in T-ALL cells through inhibiting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. Autophagy might play a role as a self-defense mechanism in T-ALL cells treated by resveratrol. Therefore, the reasonable inhibition of autophagy in T-ALL cells may serve as a promising strategy for resveratrol induced apoptosis and can be used as adjuvant chemotherapy for T-ALL.