Objective Cigarette smoking is one of the established risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, however, its impact on lipids is not completely understood, especially in the Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of smoking status (non, former, and current smoking) on the distribution of lipoprotein subfractions in untreated patients with angina-like chest pain.Methods A total of 877 patients were consecutively enrolled and divided into nonsmoking (n = 518), former smoking (n = 103), and current smoking (n = 256) groups. Both low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C) subfractions were measured using the Quantimetrix Lipoprint System. The distributions of lipoprotein subfractions were evaluated among the groups.Results Compared with nonsmoking subjects, the current smoking group had significantly lower large/medium HDL-C (both P < 0.001) concentration and large HDL subfraction percentage but higher small HDL-C and medium LDL-C concentrations as well as medium LDL subfraction percentage. Importantly, former smoking subjects showed elevated levels of large HDL-C concentration, large HDL particle percentage, and mean LDL particle size and attenuation in small HDL/LDL percentages and small LDL-C concentration, but these levels did not reach the optimal status compared with those of the non-smoking group (data not shown).Conclusion Smoking has an adverse impact on the lipoprotein subfractions, presented as lower large HDL particles besides higher small HDL and medium LDL particles, whereas smoking cessation could reverse these change to a certain degree.
Objective To establish the distribution of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Chinese adults.Methods We estimated the 10-year ASCVD risk by applying the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCEs) to the data obtained from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that involved 61, 541 participants (representing 520, 158, 652 Chinese adults) aged 40-79 years. We also compared the ASCVD risk with the 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk, which was calculated using the simplified scoring tables recommended by the Chinese Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (Chinese model).Results Based on the PCEs, the average 10-year ASCVD risk among adults without self-reported stroke or myocardial infraction was 12.5%. Approximately 247 million (47.4%) and 107 million (20.6%) adults had ≥ 7.5% and > 20% 10-year ASCVD risks, respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk > 20% was higher among men, less educated individuals, smokers, drinkers, and physically inactive individuals than among their counterparts. Overall, 29.0% of adults categorized using the Chinese model were overclassified with the PCEs.Conclusion Our results define the distribution of 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults. The 10-year ASCVD risk predicted by the PCEs was higher than the ICVD risk predicted by the Chinese model.
Objective To assess the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Simplified Chinese-character version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long form (IPAQ-L) in urban community-dwelling adults in Hanghzou, China.Methods A total of 158 eligible participants aged 25-59 years from 6 neighbourhoods in two central districts of Hangzhou completed the IPAQ-L questionnaire twice within a 7-day interval. Half of the subjects wore pedometers during the first 7 days. Test-retest reliability was examined by comparing the first (Day 1) and the second (Day 9) survey of IPAQ-L. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing IPAQ-L with pedometer data.Results Modest to good test-retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.67 for total PA, 0.37 to 0.73 for specific dimensions, and 0.56 to 0.71 for different intensities of PA. Total PA measured by IPAQ-L was moderately correlated with exercise levels (partial r = 0.27, P = 0.020) and walking distance (partial r = 0.31, P = 0.007), which were measured by a pedometer, after adjusting for gender, age, educational attainment and employment status.Conclusion Our results indicate that the IPAQ-L is a reliable and validated measure for assessing physical activity levels in this population and possibly the adult population in other mainland Chinese cities.