Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults.Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 549 subjects without previous diagnosis or clinical symptoms of CVD in a community cohort of middle-aged Chinese adults. The participants underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography for the evaluation of the presence and composition of coronary plaques. CVD risk was evaluated by the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score.Results Among the 549 participants, 267 (48.6%) had no coronary plaques, 201 (36.6%) had noncalcified coronary plaques, and 81 (14.8%) had calcified or mixed coronary plaques. The measures of CVD risk including FRS and ASCVD risk score and the likelihood of having elevated FRS significantly increased across the groups of participants without coronary plaques, with noncalcified coronary plaques, and with calcified or mixed coronary plaques. However, only calcified or mixed coronary plaques were significantly associated with an elevated ASCVD risk score[odds ratio (OR) 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-5.32] compared with no coronary plaques, whereas no significant association was found for noncalcified coronary plaques and elevated ASCVD risk score (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.71-2.21) after multivariable adjustment.Conclusion Calcified or mixed coronary plaques might be more associated with an elevated likelihood of having CVD than noncalcified coronary plaques.
Objective To assess the 10-year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score among adults in eastern China using the China-PAR equation which formulated primarily for the Chinese population.Methods Data from 72, 129 individuals from 35-74 years old who received routine physical examinations in eastern China were analyzed in this study. The 10-year risk scores were calculated using the China-PAR equation. The chi-square test and logistic regression were then performed to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and overall CVD risk.Results The mean 10-year ASCVD risk scores were 3.82% ±3.76% in men and 1.30% ±1.65% in women based on the China-PAR equation. Overall, 20% of men and 3.5% of women were intermediate-risk, and 7.3% of men and 0.3% of women were high-risk. Waist to hip ratio (WHR)[OR=1.16 (CI 95%=1.06-1.26)], waist to height ratio (WHtR)[OR=1.16 (CI 95%=1.05-1.28)], non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)[OR=1.23 (CI 95%=1.09-1.39)], and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C[OR=1.68 (CI 95%=1.46-1.94)] were more strongly associated with CVD risk than body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and TC alone.Conclusion Male-specific prevention and treatment strategies for ASCVD are needed in eastern China. In addition, WHR, WHtR, non-HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C which not included in the the China-PAR equation were also independently associated with 10-year ASCVD risk score categories.
Objective To compare the serum glycerophospholipid levels in the inflammatory subtypes of asthma by using targeted metabolomic analysis.Methods Demographic and clinical data were collected from 51 patients with asthma between January 2015 and December 2015. Routine blood and sputum induction tests were performed. Eosinophilic asthma was defined as induced sputum containing ≥ 3% eosinophils, and neutrophilic asthma, as induced sputum containing ≥ 71% neutrophils. Serum metabolic glycerophospholipid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differences in glycerophospholipid levels between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma and between neutrophilic and non-neutrophilic asthma were analyzed using partial least squares discriminant analysis.Results The serum lysophosphatidylglycerol level was significantly higher in the group with ≥ 3% eosinophils in sputum than in the group with < 3% eosinophils in sputum. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was ≥ 70%. There was no significant difference in the serum metabolic glycerophospholipid profile between the group with sputum neutrophils ≥ 71% and the group with sputum neutrophils < 71%.Conclusion Serum lysophosphatidylglycerol is produced abundantly in eosinophilic asthma and may be a biomarker of eosinophilic asthma. This information is helpful for identifying and tailoring treatment for the common asthma subtypes.
Objective Our aim was to explore whether heat stress protein (HSP) 9 preferentially expresses under heat stress and affects the expression of other heat stress proteins as well as to explore the effect of HSPB9 overexpression and knockdown on apoptosis in DF-1.Methods We used gene cloning to construct an overexpression vector of the target gene, and synthesized the target gene interference fragment to transfect the chicken fibroblast cell line. Gene and protein expression, as well as apoptosis, were detected by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry.Results Chicken DF-1 cells showed an early state of apoptosis in the early stages of HSPB9 overexpression. In the later stages, as HSPB9 expression increased, the cells showed inhibition of apoptosis. When the cells were under heat stress, HSPB9 expression was much higher and earlier than the expression of HSPB1 and HSPA2. In addition, high expression of HSPB9 had a negative effect on HSPB1 and HSPA2 expression. This negative feedback decreased the percentage of early stages of apoptotic cells and promoted cell survival.Conclusion HSPB9 expression, although rapid, is detrimental to cell survival early during its overexpression. In heat stress, HSPB9 overexpression, while inhibiting the expression of HSPA2 and HSPB1, is beneficial to cell survival.
The health effects of climatic changes constitute an important research area, yet few researchers have reported city- or region-specific projections of temperature-related deaths based on assumptions about mitigation and adaptation. Herein, we provide quantitative projections for the number of additional deaths expected in the future, owing to the cold and heat in the city of Nanjing, China, based on 31 global circulation models (GCMs), two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), and three population scenarios [a constant scenario and two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) (SSP2 and SSP5)], for the periods of 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099. The results show that for the period 2070-2099, the net number of temperature-related deaths can be comparable in the cases of RCP4.5/SSP2 and RCP8.5/SSP5 owing to the offsetting effects attributed to the increase of heat related deaths and the decrease of cold-related deaths. In consideration of this adaptation, we suggest that RCP4.5/SSP2 is a better future development pathway/scenario.
Objective The Jidong Women Health Cohort Study is a prospective cohort study on female-specific characteristics and risks of chronic diseases in Chinese women and focuses on the potential association between menopause and risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Methods The study includes 4, 179 female participants with an age of older than 18 years from Caofeidian district, Tangshan city, northern China. Baseline information on female-specific characteristics and potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all the participants underwent a physical examination with blood samples collected in 2013. To establish a better risk assessment tool of female CVD, updated information from questionnaire investigation, physical examinations and occurrence of outcome events will be collected through a longitudinal follow-up annually up to the year 2024.Results At baseline, Mean age of the participants was 42.3 ±12.8 years. Reproduction occurred in 2, 948 participants (70.5%), menopausal transition in 173 (4.3%), and postmenopause in 1, 058 (25.3%). The incidence of arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes showed significant difference across different groups stratified by Stage of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) system (P < 0.05).Conclusion The Jidong Women Health Cohort Study will contribute to the scientific evidence on association between female-specific characteristics and cardiovascular risks, and will also be helpful to provide a new path for early detection and prevention of CVD.