Objective This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food. Methods Ninety Aeromonas isolates were obtained from Ma’anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated gyrB-cpn60 sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Results The 90 Aeromonas isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The Aeromonas isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes act, aerA, alt, and ast found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new mcr-3 variant. Conclusions Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in Aeromonas isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.
Objectives To evaluate the distribution by age and sex of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in an urban Chinese population and to provide a profile prediction for the risk of bacterial infection, inflammatory diseases, or tissue damages in the body. Methods Serum hsCRP was determined using the Roche Tina-quant immuno-turbidimetric assay on a Hitachi 7600–010 automatic biochemical analyzer (Roche Diagnostics) in 1,572 males and 1,800 females, including 78 pregnant women, who were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010–2012. Results The average hsCRP concentration in urban China was 0.68 mg/L for males and 0.65 mg/L for females. Significant differences in hsCRP were found among different age groups (P < 0.05). Monitoring results showed no significant differences among the 6–11, 45–59, and ≥ 60-year-old groups in the comparison of hsCRP between males and females in large cities. However, hsCRP concentration was significantly higher in men aged 12–17 and 18–44 years than in women. Conclusion The distribution of the hsCRP status of residents in large cities in China was influenced by age and gender, and the hsCRP levels of both sexes increased gradually with age. In addition, hsCRP concentration was higher in healthy pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Basing on our results, we recommend that this parameter be included in future national and international screening for early detection of various illnesses.
Objective To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol. Methods The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams. Results In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.
Objective To analyze the rate of erythrocyte iron incorporation and provided guidance for the iron nutrition for prepubertal children. Methods Fifty-seven prepubertal children of Beijing were involved in this study and each subject was orally administered 3 mg of 57Fe twice daily to obtain a total of 30 mg 57Fe after a 5-d period. The stable isotope ratios in RBCs were determined in 14th day, 28th day, 60th day, and 90th day. The erythrocyte incorporation rate in children was calculated using the stable isotope ratios, blood volume and body iron mass. Results The percentage of erythrocyte 57Fe incorporation increased starting 14 th day, reached a peak at 60 d (boys: 19.67% ± 0.56%, girls: 21.33% ± 0.59%) and then decreased. The erythrocyte incorporation rates of 57Fe obtained for girls in 60th day was significantly higher than those obtained for boys (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The oral administration of 57Fe to children can be used to obtain erythrocyte iron incorporation within 90 d. Prepubertal girls should begin to increase the intake of iron and further studies should pay more attention to the iron status in prepubertal children.
Objective We aimed to assess the features of notifiable infectious diseases found commonly in foreign nationals in China between 2004 and 2017 to improve public health policy and responses for infectious diseases. Methods We performed a descriptive study of notifiable infectious diseases among foreigners reported from 2004 to 2017 in China using data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System (NNIDRIS). Demographic, temporal-spatial distribution were described and analyzed. Results A total of 67,939 cases of 33 different infectious diseases were reported among foreigners. These diseases were seen in 31 provinces of China and originated from 146 countries of the world. The infectious diseases with the highest incidence number were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of 18,713 cases, hepatitis B (6,461 cases), hand, foot, and mouth disease (6,327 cases). Yunnan province had the highest number of notifiable infectious diseases in foreigners. There were different trends of the major infectious diseases among foreign cases seen in China and varied among provinces. Conclusions This is the first description of the epidemiological characteristic of notifiable infectious diseases among foreigners in China from 2004 to 2017. These data can be used to better inform policymakers about national health priorities for future research and control strategies.
Objective To analyze factors associated with unplanned revascularization (UR) risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 10,640 cases with CAD who underwent PCI were analyzed. Multivariate COX regressions and competing risk regressions were applied. Results The patients who underwent UR following PCI in 30 days, 1, and 2 years accounted for 0.3%, 6.5%, and 8.7%, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the number of target lesions [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.320; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.643–3.277; P < 0.001], time of procedure ( HR= 1.006; 95% CI: 1.001–1.010; P = 0.014), body mass index (HR= 1.104; 95% CI: 1.006–1.210; P = 0.036), incomplete revascularization (ICR) (HR= 2.476; 95% CI: 1.030–5.952; P = 0.043), and age (HR = 1.037; 95% CI: 1.000–1.075; P = 0.048) were determined as independent risk factors of 30-day UR. Factors, including low-molecular-weight heparin or fondaparinux (HR= 0.618; 95% CI: 0.531–0.719; P < 0.001), second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stent ( HR = 0.713; 95% CI: 0.624–0.814; P < 0.001), left anterior descending artery involvement ( HR= 0.654; 95% CI: 0.530–0.807; P < 0.001), and age ( HR= 0.992; 95% CI: 0.985–0.998; P = 0.014), were independently associated with decreased two-year UR risk. While, Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score (HR= 1.024; 95% CI: 1.014–1.033; P < 0.001) and ICR ( HR= 1.549; 95% CI: 1.290–1.860; P < 0.001) were negatively associated with two-year UR risk. Conclusion Specific factors were positively or negatively associated with short- and medium-long-term UR following PCI.
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a veterinary pathogen that infects domestic animals as well as wild animals such as wild boar and feral swine, was recently reported to infect human and led to endophthalmitis and encephalitis. A retrospective seroepidemiologic survey was conducted using 1,335 serum samples collected from patients with encephalitis and ELISA positive rates were 12.16%, 14.25%, and 6.52% in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. The virus neutralizing antibody titers of positive samples correlated well with ELISA results. The pseudorabies virus antibody positive rate of patients with encephalitis were higher than that of healthy people in 2017. The above results suggest that some undefined human encephalitis cases may be caused by PRV infection.