Objective Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an important member of the IFITM family. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiviral action have not been completely elucidated. Recent studies on IFITM3, particularly those focused on innate antiviral defense mechanisms, have shown that IFITM3 affects the body’s adaptive immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of IFITM3 proteins to immune control of influenza infection in vivo.Methods We performed proteomics, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry analysis and used bioinformatics tools to systematically compare and analyze the differences in natural killer (NK) cell numbers, their activation, and their immune function in the lungs of Ifitm3-/- and wild-type mice.ResultsIfitm3-/- mice developed more severe inflammation and apoptotic responses compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the NK cell activation was higher in the lungs of Ifitm3-/- mice during acute influenza infection.Conclusions Based on our results, we speculate that the NK cells are more readily activated in the absence of IFITM3, increasing mortality in Ifitm3-/- mice.
Objective High PM2.5 concentration is the main feature of increasing haze in developing states, but information on its microbial composition remains very limited. This study aimed to determine the composition of microbiota in PM2.5 in Guangzhou, a city located in the tropics in China.Methods In Guangzhou, from March 5th to 10th, 2016, PM2.5 was collected in middle volume air samplers for 23 h daily. The 16S rDNA V4 region of the PM2.5 sample extracted DNA was investigated using high-throughput sequence.Results Among the Guangzhou samples, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria,and Actinobacteria were the dominant microbiota accounting for more than 90% of the total microbiota, and Stenotrophomonas was the dominant gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 21.30%–23.57%. We examined the difference in bacterial distribution of PM2.5 between Beijing and Guangzhou at the genus level; Stenotrophomonas was found in both studies, but Escherichia was only detected in Guangzhou.Conclusion In conclusion, the diversity and specificity of microbial components in Guangzhou PM2.5 were studied, which may provide a basis for future pathogenicity research in the tropics.