2015 Vol. 28, No. 4
Methods Twenty species were collected from the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. Concentrations of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury (MeHg), and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in the samples were analyzed for benefit risk assessment based on BRAFO-tiered approach.
Results Based on the BRAFO-tiered approach, reference scenario (no intake) and alternative scenario (intake of specific species of 200 g/week) were determined. The exposure to MeHg/DLCs via alternative scenario of all studied species did not exceed provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake. However, the adult population with high DLCs exposure in China would significantly exceed the upper limit of DLCs via an additional alternative scenario of some species such as Auxis thazard. The results of deterministic computation showed that alternative scenario of all studied species generated clear net beneficial effects on death prevention and child IQ gain.
Conclusion The alternative scenario of all studied species could be recommended to population with average DLCs exposure, and the reference scenario of species with relatively high DLCs concentration could be recommended to population exposed to high DLCs.
Methods Male rats subjected to carotid artery balloon injury were treated with CORM-2, inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The reendothelialization capacity was evaluated by Evans Blue dye and the immunostaining with anti-CD31 antibody. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) was detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation, migration, and adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed by using [3H]thymidine, Boyden chamber and human fibronectin respectively. The expressions of protein were detected by using western blot analysis.
Results CORM-2 remarkably accelerated the re-endothelialization 5 d later and inhibited neointima formation 28 d later. In addition, the number of peripheral EPCs significantly increased in CORM-2-treated rats than that in iCORM-2 or DMSO-treated rats after 5 d later. In vitro experiments, CORM-2 significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and adhesion of HUVECs. The levels of Akt, eNOS phosphorylation, and NO generation in HUVECs were also much higher in CORM-2 treated group. Blocking of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway markedly suppressed the enhanced migration and adhesion of HUVECs induced by CORM-2.
Conclusion CORM-2 could promote endothelial repair, and inhibit neointima formation after carotid artery balloon injury, which might be associated with the function changes of HUVECs regulated by PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.
Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed.
Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST.
Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.
Methods Dams were orally exposed to 0, 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg daily of yttrium nitrate from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Body weight and food consumption were monitored weekly. Neurobehavior was assessed by developmental landmarks and reflexes, motor activity, hot plate, Rota-rod and cognitive tests. Additionally, brain weights were measured on PND 21 and 70.
Results No significant difference was noted among all groups for maternal body weight and food consumption. All yttrium-exposed offspring showed an increase in body weight on PND 21;however, no significant difference in body weight for exposed pups versus controls was observed 2 weeks or more after the yttrium solution was discontinued. The groups given 5 mg/kg daily decreased significantly in the duration of female forelime grip strength and ambulation on PND 13. There was no significant difference between yttrium-exposed offspring and controls with respect to other behavioral ontogeny parameters and postnatal behavioral test results.
Conclusion Exposure of rats to yttrium nitrate in concentrations up to 45 mg/kg daily had no adverse effects on their neurobehavioral development.