2008 Vol. 21, No. 2

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Kale Juice Improves Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in Hypercjlolesterolemiic Men
2008, 21(2): 91-97.
Objective To evaluate the effect of 3-month kale(Brassica oleracea acephala)iuice supplementation on coronary artery disease risk factors among hypercholesterolemic men.Methods Thkty-two men with hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL)were recruited after annual health examinations among the faculty and staff at university.The subijects consumed 150 mL of kale iuice per day for a 12-week intervention period.Dietary and anthropomeu-ic assessments were performed and blood samples were collected to evaluate biochemical profdes before and after supplementation.Results Serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol,and HDL-to LDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly increased by 27%(P<0.0001)and 52%(P<0.0001),respectively.The LDL-cholesterol concentration and the atherogenic index were significantly reduced by 1O%(P=0.O007)and 24.2%(P<0.0001),respectively without affecting body mass index,waist and hip circumferences,or nutrient intakes after three months of supplementation.While there was no difference in the concentration of malondialdehvde,significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity(P=0.0005)were accompanied by a significant increase in the serom selenium level(P=0.0132).It was also foand that the responses of these risk factors to kale inice administration were dependent on smoking status.Conelusion Regular meals supplementation with kale juice can favorably influence serum lipid profiles and antioxidant systems.and hence contribute to reduce the risks of coronary artery disease in male subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Biodegradation of Tetrachlorothylene Using Methanol as Co-metabolic Substrate
2008, 21(2): 98-102.
Objective To investigate the biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene(PCE using methanol as electron donor by acclimated anaerobic sludge.Methods HP-6890 gas chromatograph(GC),together with HP-7694 autosampler,was used to analyze the concentration of PCE and intermediates. Results PCE could be decholrinated reductively to DCE via TCE,and probably further to VC and ethylene.The degradation of PCE and TCE conformed to first-order reaction kinetics.The reaction rate constants were 0.8991 d-1and 0.068 d-1,respectively,and the corresponding half-life were 0.77d and 10.19 d,respectively.TCE production rate constant was 0.1333 d-1.showing that PCE was degraded more rapidly than TCE. Conclusion Methanol is an electron donor suitable for PCE degradation and the cometabolic electron donors are not limiting factors for PCE degradation.
Orf1/SpcS Chaperones ExoS for Type Three Secretion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2008, 21(2): 103-109.
Objective Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen that uses the type III secretion system (TTSS)to inject effector proteins directly into the cytosol of target cells to subvert the host cell's functions.Specialized bacterial chaperones are required for effective secretion of some effectors.To identify the chaperone of ExoS,the representative effector secreted by the TTSS of P. aeruginosa,we analyzed the role of a postulated chaperone termed Orfl.Methods By allelic exchange,we constructed the mutant with the deletion of gene Orfl.Analysis of secreted and cell-associated fractions was performed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.Using strain expressing in trans Orfl,tagged by V5 polypeptide and histidine,protein-protein interaction Was determined by affinity resin pull-down assay in combination with MALDI-TOF. The role of Orfl in the expression of eroS was evaluated by genel reporter analysis.Results Pull-down assay showed that Orfl binds to ExoS and ExoT.Secretion profile analysis showedthat Orfl was necessary for the optimal secretion of ExoS and ExoT.However,Orfl had no effect on the expression of eroS.Conclusion Orfl is important for the secretion of ExoS probablY by mamtauung ExoS in a secretion-competent conformation.We propose to name Orfl as SpcS for "specific Pseudomonas chaperone for ExoS".
Tissue Extracts From Infarcted Myocardium of Rats in Promoting the Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Into Cardiomyocyte-like Cells
2008, 21(2): 110-117.
Objective To investigate whether cardiac tissue extracts from rats couldmimicthe cardiacmieruenvironment and act as a natural inducer in promoting the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs)into cardiomyocyms.Metheds Three kinds of tissue extract or cell lysate[infarcted myocardial tissue extract(IMTE),normal myocardial tissue extract(NMTE)and cultured neonatal myocardial lysate(NML)]were employed to induce BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells.The cells were harvested at each time point for reverse transcription-polymerage chain reaction(RT-PCR)detection,immunocytochemical analysis,and transmission electron microscopy.Results After a 7-day induction,BMSCs were enlarged and polygonal in morphology.Myofilaments,striated safcomeres,Z-fines,and more mitochondia were observed under transmission electron microscope.Elevated expression leveIs of cardiac-specific genes and proteins were also confirmed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry.Moreover,IMTE showed a greater capacity of differentiating BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Conclusions Cardiac tissue extracts,especially IMTE,can effectively differentiate BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells.
Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation Kinetic of Gaseous Ammonia Over Nano-TiO2 Supported on Latex Paint Film
2008, 21(2): 118-123.
Objective To investigate the photoeatalytic degradation of gaseous ammonia in static state by using nano-TiO2 as photocatalyst supported on latex paint film under UV-irradiation.Methods Experiments were conducted to study the relationship between the initial concentration of ammonia and the degradation products competing to be adsorbed on catalyst surface.Degradation of ammonia and its products were detected by spectrophotometry and catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry,respectively.Results On the one hand,TiO2 catalyst was excellent for degradation of ammonia,and the crystal phase of TiO2,anatase or rutile,had little effect on degradation of ammonia,but the conversion of ammonia grew with the increase of catalyst content.On the other hand,apparent rate constant and conversion of anmaoma decreased with the increase of initial concentration of ammonia,and the photocatalytic degradation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order expression due to the evidence of linear correlation between-lnC/Co vs.irradiation time t, but the relationship between initial concentration and the degradation products Was not linear in low initial concentration.Conclusion Whether the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in static state follows a first-order reaction depends on the initial ammonia concentration due to competition in adsorption between reactant and the degradation products.
HIV/AIDS Related Discrimination in Health Care Service:a Cross-sectional Study in Gejiu City,Yunnan Province
2008, 21(2): 124-128.
Objectives To investigate discrimination against people living with HIV(PLWH)and its impacts.Methods Forty people who were either HIV positive(7/40)or had high risk behavior(33/40)were interviewed.Focus group discussion was held in the interview with people who were suspected to be infected with HIV,and in-depth interview was conducted in the survey of HIV positive persons whose privacy was strictly protected to ensure the confidentiality of the collected information.Results It was identified that six forms of discrimination against people living with HIV occurred in health care service in Gejiu,including speaking to patients in an insulting manner,refusing to provide health care service,delaying against people living with HIV greatly affected their health conditions.Conclusions Discrimination against people living with HIV in health service has negative impact on their physical and mental health.
Interactions Between Effects of Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on BMD and Experiences of the First Spermorrhea in Chinese Han Boys
2008, 21(2): 129-136.
Objective To study the interaction between polymorphisms of estrogen receptor(ER)gene and puberty on bone mineral density(BMD).Methods One hundred and forty-six boys aGEd 13-17 years were divided into two groups according to their first spermorrhea.DNA wag analyzed for Xba I and Pvu Ⅱ genotypes by PCR-RFLE BMD of the total body,forearm and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiome TRY(DXA).The relationship between polymorphisms of ER gene and BMD in these two groups was analyzed. Results The BMD at all sites in the spermorrhea group was significantly higher than that in the un-spermorrhea group.The independent contribution of ER genotypes to BMD at two pubertal stages was analyzed after adjusting co-variables.In the un-spermorrhea group,the BMD at distal 1/10 and 1/3 forearm of those carrying PP genotype was significantly higher than that of the non-carries,whereas in the spermorrhea group BMD in those carrying the same genotype was significantly lower than that in the non-carriers.Similar results were obtained by haplotype analysis.Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that body weight,age and the first spermorrehea were the dominant determinants for BMD.BMD at forearm might be influenced by interaction between ER genotype and the first spermorrehea.Conclusion The polymorphisms of ER gene play a different role in BMD influenced by the first spermorrhea.Chinese boys carrying Porx allele should pay more attention to their bone mass.
Enrichment-ELISA for Detection of Salmonella typhi From Food and Water Samples
2008, 21(2): 137-143.
Objective Development of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay(sELISA)for rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi(S.typhi) from food and water samples and optimization of enrichment procedures for use with the developed sELISA to increase the detection Sensitivity of the assay. Methods Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with flagellin(H=d)antigen of S.typhi were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells.The hybridoma cell line specific to H=d antigen was established.characterized and ascites raised against one of these clones.The hypefimmune serum to flagellin antigen was raised in New Zealand White rabbits.An sELISA was developed using polyclonalantibody as capture and monoelonal antibody as detection antibody.To design the efficient culture sUrategies for use with the sELISA.different pre-enrichment and enrichment brothswere evaluated.The mediaincluded buffered peptonewater(BPW)and brain heart infusion broth for pre-enrichment and selenite F broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth as enrichment broths.The developed sELISA with preceding enrichment step in BPW(Enrichment-ELISA)was evaluated in various food samples artificially inoculated with S. typhi bacteria.Various food(30)and water(35)samples collected from field were also tested by Enrichment-ELISA and culture method. Results Out of four specific clones to H=d antigen,one clone(#2/56.IgG2a isotype)was usedin sELISA.The sELISA had the detectionlimit of 104-105 cfu of S.typhi.Of the various broths used with sELISA,BPW was found to yield maximum ELISA values.Enrichment-ELISA,when tested in artificially inoculated food samples,generally,could detect 102S.typhi cfu/mL within 10 h from variousfood rinses(meat,vegetable)and milk samples.After overnight enrichment in BPW,as less as 2 bacteria per 10 mL of milk,meat rinse.and chicken rinse could be detected.Only one of the field samples(water)gave false positive result by Enrichment-ELISA.Conclusion In comparison to culture,the Enrchment-ELISA is a rapid.sensitive.and specific method for detection of S.typhi from food or water samples.This method may be used as rapid screening procedure for environmental monitoring during outbreak situation.
Impacts of Passive Smoking on Learning and Memory Ability of Mouse Offsprings and Intervention by Antioxidants
2008, 21(2): 144-149.
Objective To determine the impact of passive smoking and the protective effect of antioxidants such as vitamin E and quercetin on learning and memory ability of mouse offsprings. Methods A passive smoking model of pregnant mice wasestablished.Learning and memory ability was evaluated by the water maze test and long term potentiation (LTP).Nitric oxide (No),content, nitric oxide synthase(NOS),acetylcholinesteras(Ache)activity in brain,vitamin E concentration,and reactive oxygen species(ROS)in seruln were determined.The latency period(the time during which the mice swim from the starting position to the ending position)and errors(the number of mice entering the blind end)in control and antioxidant intervention groups were compared with those in the smoke exposure group after6 days.Results The latency period as well as errors in the air,control diet,tobacco smoke(TS),and vitaminE diet groups were decreased significantlyas compared with the TS and control diet groups (P<0.05).LTP was restrained in the TS and control diet groups.LTP in all the antioxidant diet groups was significantly increased compared with the TS and control diet groups.In addition,NOS and acetylcholinesteras(Ache)activitiy was significantly higher in the TS and control diet groups than in the air and control diet group.NO content was not significantly different amongthedifferent groups,and significantly lower in the TS and vitamin E diet groups than in the TS group,control diet group,quercetin diet group,and mixture diet group(P<0.05).Vitamin E concentration and ROS activity in serum were correlated with the outcome of water maze and LTP.Conclusion Passive smoking reduces LTP formation by disturbing the hippocampus function of mice.by decreasing NOS and Ache activity and increasing NO content.Antioxidants (especially vitamin E)partially improve the learning and memory ability of offsprings whose mothers are exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy.
Removal of Nitrogen,Phosphorus,and Organic Pollutants From Water Using Seeding Type Immobilized Microorganisms
2008, 21(2): 150-156.
Objective To study the possibility of removing nitrogen.phosphorus,and organic pollutants using seeding type immobilized microorganisms.Methods Lakes P and M in Wuhan were chosen as the objects to study the removal of nitrogen,phosphorus,and organic pollutants with the seeding type immobilized microorganisms.Correlations between the quantity ofheterotrophic bacteria and the total nitrogen(TN),total phosphorus(TP),and toml organic carbon(TOC)in the two lakes were studied.The dominant bacteria were detected.inoculated to the sludge and acclimated by increasing nitrogen,phosphorus and decreasing carbon source in an intermittent,time-controlled and fixed-quantity way.The bacteria were thenused to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms,selecting diatomim as the adsorbent cairtier.The ability and influence factors of removing nitrogen,phosphorus,and organic pollutant from water samples by the seeding type immobilized microorganismswere studied.Results The coefficients of the heterotrophic bacterial quantity correlatedwith TOC,TP,and TN were 0.9143,0.8229,0.7954 in Lake P and 0.9168,0.7187,0.6022 in Lake M.Ton swains of dominant heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas,Coccus,Aeromonas,Bacillus,and Enterobateriaceae,separately,were isolated.The appropriate conditions for the seeding type immobilized microorgansims in purifying the water sample were exposure time=24h,pH=7.0-8.0.and quantity of the immobilized microorganisms=0.75-1g/50 mL.The removal rates of TOC,TP,and TN under the above conditions were 80.2%,81.6%,and 86.8%,respectively.Conclusion The amount of heterotrophic bacteria in the two lakes was correlatexl with TOC,TP, and TN.These bacteria could be acclimatized and prepared for the immobilizedmicroorganisms which could effectively remove nitrogen,phosphorus,and mixed organic pollutants in the water sample.
Preparation and Evaluation of Novel Solid Chlorine Dioxide-based Disinfectant Powder in Single-pack
2008, 21(2): 157-162.
Objective To prepare and evaluate novel chlorine dioxide-based disinfectant powder in single-pack that is more convenient for use and iransportation.Methods Orthogonal experiment was performed to determine the recipe of the disinfectant powder.Stability test,suspension quantitative bactericidal test,simulation neld trial,and animal toxicity test were carried out to observe its bactericidal and toxicological effects.Results The orthogonal experiment showed thatthe type of water solution had no effect on the disinfectant powder and the best ratio of sodium chlorite to solid acid was 1:3.Ten grams of the disinfectant powder was fully dissolved in 20 mL water for 2 mill,and diluted to 500 mL in water.After 5-10 min,the concentration of chlorine dioxide(ClO2)solution was 266 mg/L to 276 mg/L.After stored at 54℃ for 14 d,the average concentration of ClO2 was decreased by 5.03%.Suspension quantitative bactericidal test showed that the average killing logarithm(KL)value for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in 100 mg/L ClO2 solution for 2 min was over 5.00.In simulation field trial,the average descending KL value for Escherichia coli in the solution containing 100 mg/L ClO2 for 5min was ovcr 3.00.The mouse acute LD50 in the solution 5 times exceeded 5000 mg/kg.The disinfectant powder was not toxic and irritativeto rabbit skin and had nomutagenic effect on mouse marrow polychrornafic erythrocytes(PCE).Conclusion The stability and bactericidal efficacy of solid chlorine dioxide-based disinfectant powder in single-pack are good.The solution containing 100mg/L ClO2 can kill vegetative forms of bacteria.The concenwation of ClO2 on the disinfecting surface of objects is 100mg/L.The disinfectant powder is not toxic and irritative.
Antimutagenic Profile of Antioxidant Vitamins in Drosophila Mulation Test
2008, 21(2): 163-166.
Objective To assess the antimutagenicity of antioxidant vitamins(vitamins A,C,and E)as expressed by their efficacy to of X-chromosome linked recessive lethal mutations(XRLMs)in Drosophila.Larvae were exposed to dietary concentration of aflatoxins and/or the human therapeutic doses of any ofthe three antioxidant vitamins. Absence of normal eyedmales among M2 progeny gave an indication of mutation induction. Results Aflatoxin supplimentation significantly increased the incidence of XRLMs in Drosophila.Mutation frequency was also raised a little above the control level in case of vitamin treatment.However,notable mitigation in mutation frequency was registered when aflatoxin-treated larvae were concomitantly fed with any of the three antioxidant vitamins.Conclusion Aflatoxin exposure can enhance the frequency of gene mutation in Drosophila which is significantly lowered by each of the three antioxidant vitamins.The degree of amelioration produced by them is almost identical.This mitigation is based on the scavenging/trapping by antioxidant vitamins of DNA-reactive products (metabolites and radicals)emanating from aflatoxin metabofism.
Effects of Corticosterone,cAMP,cGMP,Ca2+,and Protein Kinase C on Apoptosis of Mouse Thymocytes Induced by X-ray Irradiation
2008, 21(2): 167-172.
Objective To observe the effects of signal factors of eortieosterone(CS),cAMP,cGMP,Ca2+ and protein kinase C(PKC)on lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse thymus induced by X-rays of 4 Gy in vitro. Methods The DNA lytic rate for thymocytes was measured by fluorospectrophotometry. Results The DNA lytie rate for thymocytes 4-8 hours after irradiation with 2-8Gy was significantly higher than that in the control(P<0.01).As compared with the control,the DNA lytic rate for thymocytes treated with 0.01 umol/L CS(P<0.01),50 ng/mL cAMP(P<0.01),0.05-0.4 ug/mL ionomycin(Iono,P<0.05 or P<0.01)or 0.05-0.4 ng/mL phorbol myristate acetate(PMA,P<0.05 or P<0.01),respectively,was significantly increased,while the rate for thymocytes treated with 50 ng/mL cGMP was not significantly increased.The DNA lyric rate for thymocytes treated with 0.O1umol/L CS(P<0.01),50 ng/mL cAMP(P<0.01),0.2 and 0.4ug/mL Iono(P<0,05),and 0.2 and 0.4 ng/mL PMA(P<0.05)Plus4-Gy irradiation,respectively,was significantly higher than that treated with single 4-Gy irradiation,while the rate for thymocytestreated with 50 ng/mL cGMP plus4-Gy irradiation was not increased.When both 0.4ug/mL Iono and 0.4 ng/mL PMA acted on the thymocytes,the DNA lyric rate for thymocytes was significantly higher than that in the control(P<0.01),the DNA lytic rate for thymocytes treated with both 0.4ug/mL Iono and 0.4 ng/mL PMA plus 4-Gy irradiation was significantly higherthanthattreatedwith single 4-Gy irradiation(P<0.05),but was not significantly bigher than that treated with 0.4ug/mL Iono plus 4-Gy irradiation or 0.4 ng/mL PMA plus 4-Gy irradiation.Conclusion CS,cAMP,Ca2+,and PKC signal factorscall promote thymocyte apoptosis induced by larger dose X-rays.
Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China
2008, 21(2): 173-179.
Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS
2008, 21(2)