Particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the Atmosphere of an Electronic Waste Dismantling Area in China
Abstract: Objective Particulate samples from the atmosphere in an electronic waste dismantling area were collected to investigate the levels and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Methods Particulate samples including total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter <2.5 μm diameter (PM<,2.5>) were collected on selected non-rainy days in summer (Jul 10-12, 2006) and winter (Jan 11-13, 2007) from Fengjiang (FJ), an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area in eastern China, and an adjacent area Luqiao (LQ). The samples were analyzed by isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results In FJ, the mean PCDD/F concentrations (mean TEQ values) were 280.6 pg Nm<'-3> (3.432 pg WHO-TEQ Nm<'-3>) for the TSP samples and 223.3 pg Nm<'-3> (3.180 pg WHO-TEQ Nm<'-3>) for the PM<,2.5> samples. The total PCDD/F concentrations and TEQs in the PM<,2.5> samples were about 66.8%-108.0% of the TSP samples, indicating that the fine particles contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs than coarse particles. The PCDD/F levels in FJ were much higher than those detected in common urban areas around the world, suggesting that the study area was heavily polluted by PCDD/Fs. Furthermore, the total average daily PCDD/F intake in FJ was estimated at 62.11 pg WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1> for adults and 110.11 pg WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1> for children, which greatly exceeds the WHO (1998) tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg of WHO-TEQ kg<'-1>·day<'-1>. Conclusion The PCDD/F homologues and congener profiles confirmed that the PCDD/Fs in FJ originated from crude e-waste recycling activities. The severe dioxin pollution present in FJ has also substantially influenced the adjacent area of LQ through atmospheric transport. Open burning of medical waste was another source of PCDD/Fs identified in LQ.
|Citation:||WEN Sheng, GONG Yan, LI JingGuang, SHI TingMing, ZHAO YunFeng, WU YongNing. Particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the Atmosphere of an Electronic Waste Dismantling Area in China[J]. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2011, 24(2): 102-111. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.003|